Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

47 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Francesco Petrarch
--Father of Humanism
--First to study Cicero and break away from the medieval thought
--1341 named poet laurate of Rome
--Wrote biography of Scipio Africanus (Africa)
--Stayed within the frames of Christianity
Coluccio Salutati
--Follower of Petrarch and Cicero
--Named chancellor of the Signoria of Florence
--Collected and translated Latin texts
--Brought Chrysoloras to Florence to teach Greek
--Promoted the education of Florence
Manuel Chrysoloras
--Taught Greek to the humanists in Florence
Vittorino da Feltre
--One of the greatest teachers of the Renaissance
--Opened his own school in Venice
--Taught for the Gonzaga family in Mantua
--Combined humanist and medieval views
Poggio Bracciolini
--From Florence
--Wrote "On Avarice" which did not condemn avarice but said that it must be present for a successful economic city
Leonardo Bruni
--Studied under Chrysolras' students
--Also served as a chancellor of the Signoria of Florence
--Tutor in the Medici house
--Secretary to Pope Innocent VII
--Wrote "The History of the Florentine People" which is seen as a pursuit of liberty
--saw liberty as essential to a republican state
Leon Battista Alberti
--Wrote "On Painting" in Latin (1435) and then in Italian (1436)
--In the book he proclaimed the New Rome to be Florence and the new artistic developments in Florence
--Linear experiment
--Space to represent time
Lorenzo Valla
--Extrodinary linguistic ability
--worked at the court of Naples
--Wrote a piece that denies the fundamental document of the medieval church that the Pope's power was based on in 1439
Marsilio Ficino
--Led a school of humanists studying Plato in Florence
--Most respected Platonist of the age
--Translated Plato from Greek to Latin to Italian
--1433 to 1499
Pico de Mirandola
--Studied under Ficino at the Platonic Academy
--1486 he went to Rome where he wrote 900 theses on philosphical and theological matters
--Wrote "Oration on the Dignity of Man"--1486
--Got in trouble with the Pope and never got back on the good side
--Died at 31
Johannes Reuchlin
--Meets Mirandola
--Becomes interested in the Cabala and Hebrew scriptures as a way to convert Jews to Christianity
--Translates the Hebrew Bible into a Polygot bible that has hebrew in it
--Protected by Pope Leo III
--Promotes the study of Hebrew at Paris
Konrad Celtis
--Wrote Oration at Ingolstadt in 1492
--Opposed the Pope's statement that Germany was made civil by the popes
--Used the Germania in the opposite way from Pius
--his travels were used in the Nuremberg Chronicle
--Named poet lauret of Germany in the late 15th century
--seperated German history from Roman history
--Religion was not a main priority
Desiderius Erasmus
--Dutch Scholar
--Spent a lot of time in England teaching at Cambridge
--Started a Platonic academy
--wanted to emulate and better Jerome in the production of the Vulgate Bible
--wrote Jerome's biography focusing on his scholarly work not his church life
Pope Pius II
--Moved from Italy to Germany and stayed at the Imperial Court
--Persuaded the emperor to start picking up the literature of the humanists
--Tried to strengthen the papacy as pope
--Used Germania to say that Germany was only civil because of the Popes
Pope Nicholas V
--persuaded the Italian City states to sign a treaty that would unite them against outside conquests in 1454
Council of Constance
--Kind of Pointless
--Only reformed the College of Cardinals
Council of Ferrara-Florence
--Called by Eugenius V, who ends up fleeing it
--The Medici family bought the council and brought it to Florence
--United the East and West Church under one Pope
--Brought Greek learning (esp. Plato) to Italy because all of the travelors from Greece were there
Peace of Lodi
--The Italian States were bound by this peace against eachother and outsied conquests
--Bridged the gap between Milan and Venice
--Women became the language of the courts because they were traded back and forth to seal the peace deal
Reuchlin Affair
--Controversy about Hebrew texts being used in Christiandom
--Used to convert the Jews to Christianity.
Invention of the Printing Press
--Guttenburg was a metal worker
--Schoeffer was a copyist and a calligrapher
--Fust was a metal worker and the money
--12000 books in 2 months
--By 1470 all throughout Rome
--By 1492 every country in Europe had one
--Aldine Press--opened in venice by a very well learned Greek and Rhetoric humanist
--Many Greeks in Venice aided with the print and translation of Greek texts
--Ancient Greek philosopher
--Wrote dialogues from Socrates
--council of Rome in 63
--Great at rhetoric and a lawyer in Rome
--Spoke against Antony and was eventually killed for it
--Roman rhetorcian
--35 AD
--Wrote a 12 volume text book
--Roman Historian
--Wrote Germania
--Annals and Histores
--Early Father of the Church
--First person to translate the bible into Latin
--First Polygot Bible
--1st century BC
--Roman architect and engineer
--Wrote the "10 books of architecture"
--Exiled from Florence until 1434
--When they came back they need to establish power so they adorned the city of Florence
--Cosimo was the richest person in Italy
--Rebuilt the Church of San Lorenzo and the San Marco monestary
--Wanted to make Florence the new Rome
--Bought the Council of Ferrara in 1439
--Lorenzo was the ruler after Cosimo
--A natural Florentine
Visconti of Milan
--ruled w/n the context of Milan
--last one died in 1447
--after them Milan wanted the Golden Ambrosian Republic, which only lasted 3 years
Sforza of Milan
--Fransesco Sforza was hired to defend the Ambrosian Republic
--by 1450 he took Milan for his own
--to win over the hearts of the ruling class he built churches and hospitals
--ruled from a fortified space
--very detached from Milan
Cola di Rienzo
--Ruler of Rome
Este of Ferrara
--No Nobility
--Niccolo III had a lot of illegitimate children so he could pick the next ruler
--picked on ability and genius instead of right
--married into legitimacy
--developed the studiolo
Montefeltro of Urbino
--Federigo da Montefeltro made Urbino a cultural center
--wisest and most just ruler of the time
--the light of Italy
--Married Battista Sforza
--His son Guidobaldo married a Gonzaga daughter
--Professional soldier as well as a very learned man
Gonzaga of Mantua
--Professional soldiers as well as very learned men
--Married into the Este family
--Placed emphasis on literature and learning almost as much as arms and war
Pope Eugenius V
--Called the Council of Ferrara in 1939
--Fled the council because he is afraid they are going to over throw him
--Previals as Pope
--The dome of the cathedral in Florence
--Perspective experiments
--Came from humble begingings
--statues all around the city of Florence
--Made the statue of St. Mark for the Linen's guild
--French painter
Leonardo da Vinci
--Born in Florence in 1452 and died in 1519
--advised other artists to become learned
--studied both Italian and Latin works to better his painting
--said that painting was much better than poetry because people adorn paintings
--A painter for the Gonzaga family
--a court painter in Mantua
--painted many portraits of the Gonzaga family
what can you say

--son of a tanner
--his work was sponsored by the Medici elite in Florence
--very attached to Humanism
--asked to paint very tough subjects for the Medici
--painted a painting from an ekphrasis
--one of the first artists to take self-image seriously
--came to Italy to learn perspective
--did a lot of self-portraits
--liberal arts should be practiced by all levels of wealth
Italic vs. Humanistic Script
--Humanistic Script-Octavo-a font developed by the Aldine Press especially for humanists
--Italic-modeled after Petrarch's handwriting
--the description in words of a painting
-expression of aristocratic attitude
--ability to speak well and eloquently in front of people
--ability to persuade