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40 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Alexander VI
-Born Roderic Borgia in 1431
-Put his family in high positions in the Church
-Was opposed by most of Italy and Naples
-Spain stayed on his good side for America
-Issued a Papal Bull claiming the lands for Spain
-Created the "Holy League" (papacy, Venice, Milan, Hapsburgs, Spain) to crusade against the Turks and stop the French Invasion
Julius II
-Warrior Pope
-Got Charles IV to invade Italy during Alexander's reign
-Elected pope after Pius III died 10 days into his rule
-Got the youngest Borgia to support him
-Rid the papacy of temporal powers
Leo X
-First of the Medici Popes
-Issued a Papal Bull against Martin Luther and his 95 theses
-Opposed the appointment of Alexander VI
-Head of his family after Lorenzo Medici died
-Was in favor of Julius II and was appointed pope after his death in 1513
Clement VII
-Cousin of Leo X
-Ran Florence when Leo was pope
-Considered to be worldly and unaffected by what went around him, including the Protestant reformation
-Was pope during the sack of Rome
-Paid 400,000 ducati for his life
-Spent the rest of his life trying to get Charles V on his side
-Pardoned Henry VIII of England to please Charles V
Louis XII
-Son of Louis of Orleans
-Never produced a son to inherit the throne
-Pope Julius II stopped his invasions of Italy when he formed the Holy League
Francis I
-Considered to be France's first Humanistic monarchy
-Ally of Soleiman the Magnificent
-Enemy of Charles V, who he vied for a place as the Holy Roman Emperor against
-Inherited the throne of France from his cousin Louis XII
-Huge patron of art, brought Leonardo to France
-Caused economic strain in France because of his love of art
Ferdinand of Aragon
-Wife was Queen Isabella of Castile, so he united Spain under one rule for the first time since the 8th century
-The conquest of Granada was completed by him in 1492 to take over the last muslium stronghold in Iberia
-Expelled Jews from Iberia through forced conversion
Maximilian I
-Born in 1429
-Holy Roman Emperor
-Expanded his reign through war and marrage to Mary of Burgundy in 1477
-Burgundy became the rich part of the Hapsburg Empire
-Brought Konrad Celtis to elaborate on his bloodlines. He was said to be descended from Aeneas and Noah
-Married a Sforza of Milan after Mary died in 1482
Charles V
-Grandson of Mary of Burgundy and Maximilian I and Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile
-United Burgundy, the Hapsburg Empire, and Spain under one ruler
-Went against Francis because of the Golden Bull that said the emperor must be choosen by 7 electors
-Raised in the Low Countries of France and was immersed in French court culture.
-Offended the Spanish because he had no Spanish Culture
Philip I
-Father of Charles V
-Inherited French lands from his mother and Hapsburg lands from his father
-First Hapsburg ruler in Spain because of his wife, Joanna, daughter of Ferdinand
-The Spanish disliked him because he was brought up in French courts, so when his wife died he lost control of Spanish lands
Henry the Navigator
-Son of the King of Portugal
-Very Interested in Africa and employed many cartographers to draw maps of Africa
-Interested in the Legend of Prester John
Mehmed II
-"The Conqueror "1451-1461"
-Took Constantinople in 1453 when he was 21 years old
-Called himself Caesar and "ruler of two continents"
-Displaced Greek scholars into Italy but also kept many in his own home
-Lived in Constantine's own palace
-This palace was closed off from politics by walls and gardens and was a self-contained space w/n the city
Soleiman I
-"The Magnificent" "The Law Giver" 1520-1566
-Lead the sieger of Vienna in 1529
-Conquered many Eastern European lands and made the Ottoman empire a world power
-Very interested in European ways
-Tried to conquer the Persian Gulf and Central Europe
Treaty of Tordesillas
-Signed in 1494
-Divided the world outside Europe into two areas, one for Spain and one for Portugal
-It was a Papal Bull declared by Alexander VI that claimed lands for Spain, so this allowed Portugal to claim some also
Sack of Rome
-Pope Clement VII called on the French to beat the Holy Roman Emperor's troops
-When the Holy Roman Emperor's troops defeated the French there was not enough money to pay them
-Their leader Duke Charles was killed, so they took Rome w/o any organization
-Charles V half-heartedly tried to stop his troops but was happy because he disliked Clement VII and the French
Siege of Vienna
-The last attempt by an Ottoman Emperor (Suleiman I) to move into Central Europe
-The Ottomans were securing Hungary and saw an opportunity to move in Central Europe
-300,000 troops
-Austrians blew up mines and sent them back to their own lands
-Year of the Spanards
-Conquest of Granada
-Death of Lorenzo Medici
-Ultimatum for Jewish Conversion w/n Spain
-C. Columbus sails East and Arrives in America
-Death of Pierro della Francesca
-Martin Behaim's Globe-shows you can circumnavigate Africa
-1st Grammer of the Spanish language
Hapsburg Dynasty
-Included Austria and Germany
-For parts of it's reign it ruled Spain and France also
-All areas were ruled according to their own costums
Philip Melancthon
-Close friend of Martin Luther
-Key leader in the Protestant reformation
-Defended Martin Luther saying that he only rejected Papal proceduers never true scripture or Christianity
-Wrote the Augsburg Confession which was the formal confession of Protestant faith given at the Diet of Augsburg in 1530
Niklaus Copernicus
-Product of the north where the Ottoman were constantly trying to take over
-Studied at Krakow, which was the center of astronomical learning
-When the King of Poland took a Sforza wife, he went to Italy to study for 10 years all over Italy
-In the 1520s he expanded the knowledge of "heavenly spheres"
-Wrote Little Commentary in response to Ptolemy's wrong thinking about the universe
-Sent this book to the chair of Astronomy at Wittenburg
Andreas Vesalius
-Wrote the "De Humani Corporis Fabrica" in 1543, 2nd edition in 1555
-Had training in both Italian and Northern humanistic thought
-Studied surgery in Italy
-Thought that artists should know the correct anatomy of the body
-First book to disect a woman, to get to the source of life
-Mocked Galen's dissection of animals
-Painter in Venice
-Revolutionized Renaissance painting by adding color and vibrance to it
-Described by Durer as the most accomplished painter of his time
-Leader of the Italian Renaissance school in Venice
-Studied under Bellini
-Said to be the master of Venetian painting for 60 years
Leonardo da Vinci
-often drew what he saw in disections
-Brought to France by Frances 1 at the end of his life
-Also interested in the human body
-Almost had his drawings of the body included in a book by Colombo, but Colombo died before it was done
Bartolome de Las Casas
-Born in Sevilla but immigrated to Hispanola when he was a child
-Served as a missionary and witnessed the cruelness of the Europeans towards Native Americans
-Wrote many books back to Philip II
-Got many laws instated that lead to rights for the native people
-edited Columbus' book
Ogier Gheselin de Busbecq
-Served as herbalist, writer, and diplomat for 3 different Hapsburg emperors
-Served as embassador to Istanbul and wrote his most famous work, "The Turkish Letters" which describes his adventures in Ottoman politics
-Philip Von Hohenhem
-He thought that theory was useless and experience was the only thing that saved lives
-Grew up in Austria
-Supposedly got a doctorate from Ferrara in 1516
-Served as a surgeon in the Hapsburg wars in his 20s
-Appointed town surgeon of Zurich and burned all of Galen's writings in his 30s
-Recommended mercury to cure syphillus
-1st CE
-Authority on geography and astronomy
-Had Galen in his books
-Didn't think that you could get around Africa
-Was brought to Italy by the Greek scholars that were kicked out after Constantinople fell to the Ottomans
-1st CE
-Developed the theory on humoral medicine- Red, White, Black, Yellow- disease was a result of the upset of Humors
-The Reniassance humanists learned about this through the Arabs until Ptolemy was brought to Italy along with Galen
-1st CE
-Wrote books on architecture and engineering
-94 BC
-Roman poet and philospher
-Wrote "On the nature of things"
-Trojan priest of Apollo
-Warned the Trogans about the horse that the Greeks gave to them as a gift
-3rd BC
Julius Excluded from Heaven
Fugger Letters
Jacob Fugger the Rich
Turkish Letters
Ogier Ghiselin de Busbecq
The Voyages of Cadamosto
In the Defense of Indians
Bartolome de Las Casas
De Humani Corporis Fabrica
Andreas Vesalius