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19 Cards in this Set

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#1- The Italian City States
The City-States were at the center of Europe's economic and cultural life. Most of the Northern City-states were ruled by the Holy Roman Empire, but the people still were free to do what they wanted. The old nobility was powerful because of their land wealth. Then there was the wealthy merchants who fought the nobilities for power.
#1- The Italian City States
The City-States were at the center of Europe's economic and cultural life. Most of the Northern City-states were ruled by the Holy Roman Empire, but the people still were free to do what they wanted. The old nobility was powerful because of their land wealth. Then there was the wealthy merchants who fought the nobilities for power. Both of these groups had to contend with the people because they wanted their own share in the wealth. This power struggle made the people revolt and by the mid-fifteenth century, there were only a few main city-states left. The Italian city-states were far more economically efficient then the rest of Europe so they became very wealthy, The wealthy bankers were loaning money to the monarchs of Europe. These bankers and merchants then became a huge influence on the renaissance.
#2- Humanism
Humanism is characterized by a form of study based on what students in the classical world would have studied. Francesco Petrarch is the father of Humanism. He learned a lot about classical Latin and read many original documents, instead of having the midieval latin education. One of his goals was to write in Cicerean style. He never denied Christianity, but said that the Pagan Classical beliefs could be tied into Modern Christianity beliefs. Some Wealthy Flourintines liked his idea and took it further by studying the almost forgotten Classical Greek. They greatly influenced the italian Renaissance. Lorenzo Valla began to notice that the language in itself could tell us about history. he noticed that some documents were written well after their time. Women later learned to read amd write also and they began to publish some of their works.
#3- Renaissance Art
Art in the Renaissance period is considered the greatest contribution to western culture. Artist were now considered individuals with their own rights, instead of craftsman like in the midieval age. The artists now worked for patrons who wanted to glorify their achievements. Instead of frescoes, artists were using oils to make a more realistic painting. Then, single-point perspective was developed which made art even more realistic. Architecture was also changing. Filippo Brunelleschi completed a dome on top of the Cathedral of Florence. This was the first dome to be completed since the fall of the Roman empire. At the end of the Fifteenth Century, Rome replaced Florence as the center of artistry. This marked the beginning of the movement of the High Renaissance. The Popes wanted to make their city more Beautiful. Art started to change and it depicted distorted and confused shapes.
#4- Raphael
Raphael was loved by all and is famous for the painting: The School of Athens. he also made inportant contributions to the Vatican with his pictures of Jesus and Mary.
#5- leonardo Da Vinci
He was an engineer, architect, sculptor, scientist, and an inventor. his sketch books reveal an incredible mind that came up with wirkable designs for helicopters and submarines. He was also a painter. He painted the Mona Lisa.
#6- Michelangelo
Michelangelo was also skilled im many ways. His sculpture, David, was commisioned by Florence as propoganda to inspire the citizens in their overwhelming struggle with Milan. Four different Popes commisioned him, including Julius II, who made him paint the Cistene chapel and design the popes grave. He lived through the High Renaissance and the late Renaissance.
#7- The Northern Renaissance
By the late fifteenth century, Italian Renaissance Humanism had began to effect the North. Paramount in the North though was the questions about Christianity. Most people were still trying to further their understanding of God. Writers like Erasmus and More began to critisize their Church, but people like Martin Luther were finding ways to better the church instead of critisize it.
#8- Erasmus and Sir Thomas More
Erasmus was the greatest Northern Humanist. He wrot many books trying to sway the beliefs of the Catholic church. At first Erasmus liked Luther's opinions against the church. But soon they began to clash because Erasmus wanted to reform the Church, not abandon it. He also believed in free will, unlike Luther. Sir Thomas More also wrote books to tey and reform the church, but in the end he was beheaded for not admitting that Henry VIII was the head of the church.
#9- Northern Renaissance Culture
Talented painters appeared in the north. they were greatly influenced by Italian painters, but they were not the same. Some created their own unique style based on reformations or happenings in the North. the greatest achievement in arts came in England during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. This was the emergence of great writers such as William Shakespeare, who was the master of the English language.
#10- The Printing Press
n 1452 Johannes Gutenburg is credited with the invention of the printing press. He became wealthy when he printed 200 copies and sold them. The reformation might never have happened if the books couldn't be published and people wouldn't be informed of the reasons for the religious debates.
#11- The Protestant Reformation
In the year 1500 christianity was the predominant religion. then, because of the protestant reformation, there was a great split in Western christaindom. This movement dethroned the pope as the single religious athority in the church. The Northern Renaissance had some part in this breaking away because people started questiong Catholic teachings. Also the Printing press alowwed the common people to read the Bible and decide for thenselves how they should interperet it.
#12- Problems Facing the Church on the Eve of Reformation
The sixteenth-century reformation started because the church was facing a number of problems. The black plague, which had significantly reduced the population of Europe. many people were blaming it on the clergymen for not being very good. This belief was called anticlericalism. Then the church was further damaged by the Great Schism. Another problem was uneducated lower-class clergy men who all held different positions so they couldn't teach the people very weel. Simony was also a considerable problem. Many people questioned the church and ebgan to start movements including Jan Hus and John Wycliffe. Hus said that the people should also recieve the cup and wafers. He went to the Council of Constance and was promised safe passage. He was actually burnt at the stake.
#13- Martin Luther
The selling of indulgences was the first problem that brought attention to Martin Luther. This ment that you could buy your way into heaven. Luther was horrified by this practice, and he posted his 95 theses on the wall on the wall of the church. He soom printed these and spread them throughout Germany. The papcy tried to disregard Luther, but he soo gathered many followers. luther then was accused of being a follower of Jan Hus and he said that Hus was wrongly condemned. In 1520, Luther spent the year writing three political tracts: he urged that the secular government had the right to reform the church in his Address to the Crhistain Nobility. He attacked other teachings of the church such as the sacraments in his On the Babylonian Captivity of the Church. In Libert of a Christain man, he hit on what would become the basic elements of the Lutheran belief. He was placed before a council in which he denied the holy Roman Emperor and they banished him from the Empire but he stayed there to found the Lutheran church.
#14- Why did the Reformation Succeed?
protestantism had spread far and wide after the 95 Theses were posted. Also he didn' threaten the existing social order so they didn't mind joining him.
#15- Radical Reformation
Radical Reformation is used to describe several religious sects that developed by in the sixteenth century, inspired by other reformations. One group was the anabaptists who believed that infant baptism was wrong and oyu had to be grown for it to count. Eventually they were wiped out by Lutherans and Catholics. Antitrinitarians were also hunted down by the Catholics and the Lutherans.
#16- Zwingli and Calvin
Ulrich Zwingli's teachings were much like Luther's but for some differences. Zwingli denied all sacraments and the last supper was a memorial of Christ's death. He called for social reform and died leading his Zurch army against the Cathilics. Calvin believed that grace was bestowed on few individuals and that we didn't have free will. He tried to make Geneva Switzerland the new Jerusalem. Calvinism became the main religion in Scotland and it is said that it was the reason the Protestant Reformation succeeded because the Catholics foceused on Calvinism.
#17-The English Reformation
This was a political act, not a religious act. king Henry was a Catholic and he didn't like Lutherans. the reformation started with the Kings Great Matter, which involved the King's attempt to divorce his Spanish wife Catherine of Aragon. He got an annulment and in the process fell in love with Anne Boleyn. he wouldn't be with him unless he made her queen. They would not give him the annulment so he reformed Parlaiment and gave himself religious authority. HE got Anne pregnant and had to end his marraige with Catherine. He cut off the constitutional links withe the Pope and parlaiment made the Act of Restraint of Appeals and he became the jury for all spiritual cases. He then was legally divorced and married and Anne's child was a girl. He ended up marrying six wifes and got one boy. Then the Raformation was capped off by the Act of Supremacy which made the King the head of the church of England. During the reign of Mary Tudor, Edward VI successor, there was an attempt to bring back the Catholic Church. Many still held their Protestant beliefs so she allowed several hundred Englishmen to be burned at the stake, earning her the name Bloody Mary. During her sisters reign, Elizabeth, all of the religions were allowed to practice in England.
#18- The Counter Reformation
The Catholic Church tried to counter the Protestant Reformation by taking several steps. They created the Index of Prohibited Books which banned writing from people like Erasmus and Galileo. Non believers were burned or executed. The centerpiece was the Council of Trent. This gave the Papacy more power and educated the clergymen much better. They also placed limits on the selling of church offices. The reason the counter reformation succeeded was because the Jesuits were formed by Ignatius Loyola. He hit on the idea that even if the Bible didn't exist then there was still the spirit hwere Luther thought that the Bible was the only source of Christ. The reason the church accepted these people was because Ignatius wrote that he was completely obedient. to the Church