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103 Cards in this Set

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Pope
supreme pontiff, bishop of rome, visual head of the Catholic Church, most powerful position in the Roman Catholic Church
Patriarchs
there are eight, including the pope.. six of them are eastern rite catholics. the pope and the one other are for the Roman/Latic catholics
Syrian, Greek Melkite, and Maronite
three eastern rite patriarchs in Antioch
clergy
pope, patriarch, college of cardinals, cardinals, archbishops, bishops, monsignors, pastors, priests, deacons, permanent deacons
laity
religious men and women, lay people
Coptic
patriarch in Alexandria
Chaldean
patriarch in Babylon
Armenian
patriarch in Cilicia
Latin rite patriarchs
pope in rome is patriarch of the west; there is a latin rite patriarch in Jerusalem
Eastern Rite Catholics
all the faithful in these jurisdictions are fully Catholic, sharing the doctrines and sacraments of the universal Church, their litrugical rites are very different
college of cardinals
all cardinals under the age of 80; maximum of 120 members; principal advisors to the pope on both governance and doctrine; papal electors
116
As of October 11, 2005, there are ...members in the college of cardinals.
193, 77
There are... cardinals alltogether...__of them are over the age of 80.
cardinals
those over 80 years of age are no longer papal electors but advisors to the pope on matters of governance and doctrine
archbishop
the leader of an archdiocese, has limited authority over the bishops of the several dioceses in his jurisdiction/territory
bishops
head of a diocese; they have personal jurisdiction over the people within their dioceses; they decide how quickly or slowly changes happen in the diocese
bishops
teachers of doctine, priests of sacred worship, and ministers of governance; they are empowered to ordain priests, deacons, and other bishops
monsignors
this is a title of honor given to a priest; the bishop can recommend this appointment, the pope must approve it; it is a purchased title
pastor
the priest in charge of a parish; he exercises pastoral care under the authority of the diocesan bishop; his duties include teaching, sanctifying, and governing, and he has the authority to do blessings
priests
this person is ordained for the service of the people of God through the sacraments of Holy Orders; he has the power to administer the sacraments and preach
other priestly jobs
include working at hospitals, working with Latin, as Chapelin, teacher, canonical lawyer, lawyer, newspaper writer, musician, youth minister, missionary, clwoning, media, counciling, doctor, military
secular priests
priests living in daily contact with the world are called diocesan priests; they share/assist the bishop's pastoring of a diocese
religious order priests
those priests living in monastic/and or community life (administer sacraments to these members)
Lorretto sisters at Nerinx
Sr. Barbara Roche (president), Sr. Eileen Kersgieter (councilor), Sr. Roberta (librarian)
Dominican sisters at Nerinx
Sr. Loretto (librarian), Sr. Mary Schmittgens (registrar)
Blessed Virgin Mary sister at Nerinx
Sr. Eileen Fuchs (physics teacher)
deacons
ordained for service to the people of God; this is received as the first step of ordination (25 years or older) as they advance to the priesthood, those who receive this remain in it permanently (as an ordained)
permanent deacons
receive the first rank of holy orders; a qualified unmarried man 25 years of age or older may be ordained, but he may not marry after ordination
permanent deacons
a qualified married man 35 years of age or older with the consent of his wife may be ordained as a permanent deacon; he may not remarry if his wife dies
religious life
a community of men or women living in a religious community; they have taken solemn vows committing themselves to a religious community
brothers
members of a religious order who do not become priests; they are active in the world but live in religious communities
sisters
religious women who live in religious communityies and are also active in the world
brothers
are vowed members of a religious community; they work out in the world but are not ordained
nuns
religious women who live in clistered or monastic communities; they live apart from the world and usually take a vow of silence
monks
non-ordained men who live in a monastic community; they live apart from the world and also take a vow of silence
laity
all men and women religious are not ordained, so they are also laypersons
laymen and laywomen
all non-ordained members of the Church; their special mission is to witness to Christ in a special way amid secular affairs
The Church's Code of Canon Law anticipates no reason for a vacancy in the Papal Office than death or a resignation that is made "freely and...duly manifested" but not accepted by anyone
How are Popes removed from office?
No one is authorized to receive the resignation, the pope just resigns; ecclesiastical law makes no provision at all for situations where a pope may become mentally incompetent, lapse into a coma, or suffer some other radical disability that prevents him from exercising his office and ministry
How are Popes removed from office?
There have been (265) popes according to Richard McBrien.
How many popes have there been?
Pope Benedict XV [Sept. 3, 1914- January 22, 1922]
Who was pope in WWI?
Pope Pius XI [Feb. 6, 1922- Feb. 10, 1939]
Who was pope in the Great Depression?
Pope Pius XII [March 2, 1939-Oct. 9, 1958]
Who was pope in WWII?
Pope John XXIII [Oct. 28, 1958-June 3, 1963]
Which pope called Vatican II?
Pope Paul VI [June 21, 1963-Aug. 6, 1978]
Who was pope during most of the Vatican II Council?
Pope Paul VI, Pope John Paul I, and Pope John Paul II
Who were the three popes in 1978?
Pope John Paul I [Aug. 26-Sept. 28, 1978]
Who took the name of the two popes of the Vatican Council?
Pope John Paul II [Oct. 16, 1978-April 2, 2005]
-was pope for 26 yrs., 5 months, and 2 weeks
Who was the longest reigning pope in the twentieth century?
Pope Pius IX [June 16, 1846-Feb. 7, 1878]
-was pope for 31 yrs., 7 months, and 3 weeks
What pope reigned as pope the longest?
Pope John Paul II
Who was the first pope of the twenty-first century?
-He died on April 2, 2005 afer weeks of illness; his funeral was attended by people from many different countries and religions; he was buried in a simple cedar coffin, placed in the Vatican below the Ground level. He had no personal possessions beyond his personal papers, which he asked that they be burned.
What happened during the final year of John Paul II's reign?
became pope on April 19, 2005. This was the second day of Conclave. He was elected out of 115 Cardinals in the College of Cardinals. He needed at least 77 votes to gain a 2/3 majority.
Pope Benedict XVI [Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger of Germany]
Conservative German Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger had been the head of the
Congregation for the Doctrine of Faith for the last 25 years. He became Pope Benedict XVI, the 265th pope, the second pope of the 21st century.
What was Ratzinger's career like?
The selection of Ratzinger came on the second day of balloting by cardinals-who met for less than 24 hours-making it one of the quickest conclaves of the past century.
What happened during the Conclave for Ratzinger?
Joseph Ratzinger was born in Germany in 1927. At 78-years-old, he is the oldest man to be elected pope in three centuries and he is the first German pope in a 1000 years.
Who was Joseph Ratzinger?
Joseph Ratzinger is a conservative theologian and a hard-line enforcer of Catholic Church doctrine. In the 1980s, Ratzinger was a fierce opponent of liberation theology. He strongly opposes abortion, an increased role of women in the Church, artificial birth control, and homosexuality. He has been a vocal critic of war and capital punishment.
What are Ratzinger's views?
Pope Urban VII [Sept. 15-27, 1590]
-12 days
Pope John Paul I [Aug. 26-Sept. 28, 1978]
-33 days
Who were the shortest reigning popes?
Gregory XII in 1415
Who was the last pope to resign?
For the first thousand years of the Church's existence, that is, for half of its entire history, popes were elcted by the clergy and people of Rome, because, before all else, the pope is the bishop of the local church, or diocese, of Rome
How were the popes elected at first?
In the fourth and fifth centuries, popular elections of bishops, including the Bishop of Rome, continued, but now the bishops of neighboring dioceses..assumed a greater role
Who elected the popes in the fourth and fifth centuries?
In the sixth and seventh centuries, the clergy and the bishops of the neighboring dioceses took a more prominent part in electing the Bishop of Rome. Influential laypersons, such as civil and military officials, also began to exercise a greater role than ordinary citizens, although the approval of the general populace was always deemed necessary.
Who elected the pope in the sixth and seventh cenutries?
In the early eighth century, the Eastern emperors also exercised a profound, but rarely positive, influence over papal elections
Who elected the pope in the eighth century?
By the beginning of the ninth century the new Carolingian Empire had been established under Charlemagne. After Charlemagne's death in 814, his successor, Louis the Pious, restored the role of the laity in papal elections.
Who elected the pope in the ninth century?
The character of papal elections changed for the worse in the tenth century with the aristocratic families of Rome overwhelming not only the the voice of the ordinary laity but that of the clergy as well
Who elected the pope in the tenth century?
Gregory X...decreed through the Second Council of Lyons in 1274 that papal elections were to be held ten days after the death of a pope and that the cardinal-electors should conduct the election in a secure place where they will have no contact with anyone else
Who gave the election back to the Cardinals?
Current requirement is fifteen to twenty days after the beginning of a vacancy
What are the current requirements for the election of a pope?
Gregory X also stipulated that the election be held in the city or town where the pope died (a practice followed as late as the end of the eighteenth century); the cardinals were warned that if they did not elect a pope within three days, their rations were to be reduced for five days...if after those five days they still had not elected a new pope, they were to be given only bread, wine, and water until they had elected a pope...during the entire conclave the cardinals were to receive no pay
What other decrees did Gregory X make?
In John Paul Ii's new rules for papal conditions, it will be possible for a candidate to be elected pope by an absolute majority if, after several days of voting and prayer (thirty-three ballots in all), a candidate still has not received the necessary 2/3 majority
How did Pope John Paul II change the election process?
In 1970 Paul VI decreed that only cardinals under the age of eighty are eligible to vote in papal elections, with the maximum number of cardinal-electors set at 120. The election is to take place in the Sistine Chapel.
Who made the regulations on the college of cardinals?
The living quarters of the cardinals may be in any suitable place within Vatican City State. The electors will be housed in the guest house named Domus Sactae Marthae.
Where do the cardinals live when they are in conclave?
-Strict secrecy is still to be observed regarding everything pertaining to the electoral process
-No campaigning/influencing other cardinals
-No technology used to record
-No outside communication
What are the four oaths taken while in conclave?
+The only form of election...is by secret ballot, in which all the electors participate; the College of Cardinals has no power ro jurisdiction in matters pertaining to the pope during his lifetime or in the exercise of his office. No change can be made in the rules for the election of a new pope.
What were some of John Paul II's decrees on elections?
+On the first day, all the rules and norms pertaining to a papal election are to be reviewed and discussed, and an oath is to be taken by all the cardinals to observe the prescriptions of the apostolic consitution and to maintain secrecy.
What is the process for election?
From the moment the Apostolic See is vacant, the cardinal electors must wait fifteen days, for those who are absent, ande the College of Cardinals may defer the election up to a maximum of twenty days after the pope dies
When does the College of Cardinals begin?
the Camerlengo and three other cardinals, one from each of the orders, chosen by lot, who have the ability to grant permission to cardinals who need to leave the conclave in an emergency
Who is the 'particular congregation'?
A 2/3 majority of the total number of electors present is required for valid elections; one additional vote is required if the number of cardinals present is not divisible by three
How is a pope decided upon?
If the election begins on the afternoon of the first day, only one ballot is to be held. If no one is elected, two ballots are held the following morning, and two more the following afternoon.
How does the conclave progress?
[Italian 1914-1922] pope during WWI; he had exhausted all of the natural means in his power to bring about peace, but to no avail; he had to maintain strict neutrality.. he constantly pleaded for peace, but not until 1917 did he judge the time ripe for a formal attempt.
Pope Benedict XV (Giacomo delia Chiesa)
The Pope did his best to lessen the miseries of the frightful conflict; thanks to Benedict, disable prisoners were exchanged through neutral countries; he succeeded in getting wounded and sick prisoners sent to recuperate in the comparatively well-off countries; he also tried to help suffering civilians. His intercessions enable deported Belgians to return home; he begged mercy for poor Armenians, and he donated money freely to the suffering all over war-torn Europe.
What did he do for peace?
Realizing the limited power of even Papal diplomacy, the tired and frail pope turned to the Blessed mother of God, through whom all graces are dispensed; he urgently requested all Christians to beg the Virgin Mary to obtain peace in the world, and to solemnly entrust the task to Her alone.
How was Benedict connected to Mary?
[Italian 1922-1939] spoke out against nationalism, racism, anti-Semitism, and totalitarianism; he established the new feast of Christ the King to recall the rights of religion in the state; he called for greater participation by the laity, a movement he called Catholic action
Pope Pius XI (Archille Ratti)
He supported missionary work, but wanted to integrate Christianity with native cultures instead of making them European. To protect Eastern Rite Catholics from Latin influence, he augmented their congregations, established a commission to study their canon law, and exhorted Western Catholics to embrace their brothers of the various Eastern Rites.
What were some of the things Pope Pius XI advocated during his papacy?
He loved technology and sought ways for it to benefit the Church; he established Vatican radio, and modernized the Vatican Library; in 1931, Pope Pius XI's radio broadcast went trans-Atlantic and made his words truly universal; Vatican Radio expanded its programming from Latin, Italian, French, and Spanish to German and English in 1937.
How did Pius XI's love of technology affect his papacy?
He became pope six months before the outbreak of war in Europe; he was pope during WWII; he tried to keep Italy out of the war, adhering to a policy of strict neutrality
Pope Pius XII (Eugenio Pacelli)
Pius XII remained silent during the Holocaust, but he supervised the Pontifical Aid Commission, a relief program for war victims, and when the Germans occupied Rome in Sept. 1943, he made Vatican City an asylum for countless refugees, including Jews
What was Pius XII's greatest fault?
(Italian 1958-1963) called the Second Vatican Council to renew life in the Church, to reform its structures and institutions, and to explore ways and means of promoting unity among Christians
Pope John XXIII (Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli)
He wrote "Pacem in Terris"/"Peace on Earth," the first encyclical ever addressed to all people of good will as well as to Catholics, on the natural-law principles of peace; he was the pope of transition and tradition; he appointed the first Black Cardinal of the Catholic Church; he was an ecumenical pope because he reached out to all people because we are all children of God
What is John XXIII known for?
[Italian Jun 21, 1962-Aug. 6, 1978] he reconvened Vatican II and supervised the implementation of many of its reforms (i.e. the use of the vernacular and reform of the liturgy, an insitution of an international synod of bishops, relaxation rules on fasting and abstinence)
Pope Paul VI (Giovanni Battista)
He lifted some restrictions on intermarriage, established a commission to revise canon law, enlarged the College of Cardinals and added cardinals from the third world countries, set the maximum number of Cardinals in the College at 120, and set the age limit of 80.
What were some of the movements/reforms of Paul VI?
Pope Paul VI wrote the papal encyclical, "Humanae Vitae"/"Of Human Life" which condemned abortion, sterilization, and artificial birth control, in line with traditional teachings and in "defense of life, the gift of God, the glory of the family, and the strength of the people"
What encyclical did Paul VI write?
[Italian Aug. 26, 1978-Sept. 28, 1978] elected on the third ballot, nicknamed "the smiling pope;" intended the Church to focus on "the Christian family" because the role of the family is basic in transforming the world and in building up the kingdom of God; he immediately began planning out reforms he perceived that the church needed
Pope John Paul I (Albino Luciani)
Pope John Paul I planned to make revisions to the long-standing absolute ban on contraception and fetility treatments; he also planned changes to the Vatican power structure. However, he died 33 days after his election so he did not make any of these changes
What were some of John Paul I's plans, and what went wrong?
[Polish Oct. 16, 1978-April 2, 2005] the first Polish pope; the only pope elected from a communist country; the youngest person to be elected pope in the 20th century (he was 58 when he became pope)
Pope John II (Karol Wojtyla)
He was the first non-Italian to be elected pope in 456 years; he was the most traveled pope in history; he is given credit for helping to bring down Communism, esp. in Poland; he worked ceaselessly toward Christian reconciliation with the Jews
Who was John Paul II?
John Paul II raised his voice against the contemporary evil in our "culture of death;" he asserted the traditional Church teachings on birth control, abortion, divorce, and women's ordination; he was the the longest reigning pope of the 20th c. and the first pope of the 21st century; he was the 264th pope
What were some of his beliefs?
Pope John Paul II, who died April 2, 2005, was the first pope to use e-mail, a medium that made its debut during his 26-year papcy. The Vatican said he received tens of tehousands of messages in his final weeks as he struggled with illness.
Who was the first pope to use email?
[German April 16, 2005-present] the 265th pope; prior to his election he had been the Prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith for 25 years; he is a conservative theologian and a hard-line enforcer of the Catholic Church doctrine
Pope Benedict XVI (Joseph Ratzinger)
He is the oldest man to be elected pope in three centuries (at age 78); he is the first German pope in 1000 years; he was Dean of the College of Cardinals at the time of his election
Who is Pope Benedict XVI?
He opposes abortion, an increased role of women in the Church, artificial birth control and homosexuality; he is a vocal critic of war and capital punishment; his first encyclical as pope asked people to focus on God's love
What are some of his beliefs?
Pope Benedict XVI reminds the world that 'Born of the indissoluble marriage between a man and a woman, the family is not only a place for the transmission of life and culture, but also of faith' 'Having well-formed Catholics in public offic and in the media is important as they can be "a voice of truth" in the public realm' 'Faith, if authentic, is not expressed in an abstract manner but with works of love'
What are some things he has said as pope?
Benedict tries to be a clear theologian in everything he does and to avoid any confusion in the minds of Christians or non-Christians: he has reiterated the need for Muslims to grant the same rights of religious freedom to Christians living in the Middle East that they demand for themselves in the West-the right to build places of worship, pray openly and freely, and pass their faith on to their children. He has refused to remain silent on the subject, both in public and in private.
What actions has the pope taken since his election?
Pope Benedict XVI said, "Authentic updating of sacred music needs to stay faithful to the 'great tradition' of Gregorian chant and sacred polyphony"
As a musician, what is his relationship to Church music?
Phase 1: prescrutiny
Phase 2: scrutiny proper
Phase 3: post-scrutiny
What are the 3 phases of the pope voting process?