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123 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the community founded by Jesus Christ and annointed by the Holy SPirit as the FInal sign of God's will to save the whole human family
an inquiry about the community
Church History
Church, “building belonging to the Lord”
“fiftieth day”, takes place 50 days after Easter, the birthday of the Church, God’s very presence descending upon Mary and the Apostles, fulfills the Paschal mystery of Christ according to his promise
spirit, breath wind
the Spirit at Pentecost
Tongues as of Fire
“one who is sent”
was given the keys to the Kingdom of Heaven, chosen by Jesus
Simon Peter
Peter, rock. “You are Peter(Petros) and upon this rock(Petra) I will build my Church.”
Visible Head of the Church
Invisible Head of the Church
the lamb’s blood sprinkled on doorposts, so the angel of death may pass over
victim – an unblemished lamb
ritual – the wiping of the lamb’s blood on the doorpost
meal – the lamb, unleavened bread, bitter herbs, and wine
the Last Supper, the Eucharist
The Lord's Supper
victim – Jesus, the unblemished Lamb of God
ritual – the offering of the blood
meal – the bread and wine
a Greek translation of the Old Testament
a group of Jewish leaders
a wise member of the Sanhedrin who advised leaving the apostles Peter and John alone
mother of God, “Model of the Church”, born without sin, lived a perfect life
Mary’s accepting the role of Jesus’s mother, shows how faithful she is
Mary expressing her joy and love for God when she was pregnant, takes place in the Visitation, shows how faithful she is
people of non-Jewish faith or origin
Old and New Covenant
The Old Covenant was God’s promise to save us all from sin and death, and the New Covenant fulfills that promise. The old Covenant is very important in that all of it prefigured the New Covenant, which fulfilled it. Jesus fulfills the expectation of the Messiah, because he is both God and Man, he saved humanity from sin and death, and he opened the gates of Heaven so that we may have eternal life. He surpasses the expectation by being God and performing miracles.
A member of an ancient Jewish sect that emphasized strict interpretation
Gentiles attracted to Judaism who maintained some association with local Jewish communities without becoming Jews
Gentile Controversy
The “Gentile Controversy” was when Christianity was just beginning, and was still much tied to Judaism. The Gentiles, many of whom were followers of Jesus, wanted to become Christians. The Jewish Pharisees, however, did not wasn’t that, because the covenant with God said that all of his children had to be circumcised. But God spoke to Peter in a vision, and at the Council of Jerusalem, Peter shared that God showed no partiality. The Apostles and presbyters, after considering the matter with Paul, Barnabas, and others, concluded that the Gentiles were free from this and other dietary proscriptions of the Lord. James agreed, but only as long as they did not commit adultery or idolatry, and followed God’s Laws. They were welcomed as full and active members of the Christian community, and soon became that majority.
a well-known “God-Fearer”
Peter's vision
God came to Peter in a vision and showed no partiality
overseer/bishop of Jerusalem
“Apostle to the Gentiles”, used to be called Saul and persecuted Christians, originally a member of the Pharisees
was called because converts were told they needed to be circumcised
Council of Jerusalem
assists at Mass by preaching and distributing communion, can also celebrate at Baptisms, Marriages, and Funerals, means “servant”
“witness”, one who dies for the faith
the First Christian Martyr
Ruler of Palestine who persecuted Christians in Jerusalem
Herod Agrippa I
First Roman emperor to persecute Christians
The first Christian Emperor
Roman deacon who died while being burned over hot coals “Turn me over, this side is done”
noble woman who was arrested right after she was baptized, refused to dress in the robes of a non-Christian priestess but refused, tossed into the arena wearing only nets
Emperor who began dioceses and the “great persecution” of Christians
"wrong thinking”
someone espousing a position contrary to officially defined teachings
"right thinking”, right or correct teaching, a means of safeguarding the truth given to us by Jesus Christ himself
someone who defends and explains the faith
Christians who left the faith but wanted to return
Means “overseer”
Early name for priest or elder
the authentic list of books which makes up the Old and New Testament, chosen through apostolic tradition, Greek word for “measuring rod”
proclaimed freedom of all religions in Rome, signed by Constantine
Edict of Milan
catechumens, baptism
Christian Initiation
“Jesus is neither God nor equal to the father"
heresy that Jesus is not really human
God “in the flesh”
“New Rome”, Constantinople, trading post
what the pope is called, emperor was called
Pontifex Maximus
Jesus is not the same substance as God; interprets Bible literally; if Jesus isn’t divine, can he be savior? No. “Jesus is not truly God”.
325, calling of bishops around the world, high authority, Arius vs. Athanasius, “is Christ God or not?”, condemned Arianism
Council of Nicaea
fought Arius/Arianism, said Christ is God, eternity, word of God, incarnation, incorporeal, immaterial
381- confirmed Council of Nicaea, affirmed deity of the Holy Spirit, condemned Apollinarianism
Council of Constantinople
431, declared Nestorianism a heresy, condemned Pelagianism
Council of Ephesus
449, declared Christ’s two natures unmixed and inseperable, condemned Monophysitism
Council of Chalcedon
a heresy that taught that Jesus had only a divine nature
tribes from the North and East who fought against the people of the empire and among themselves, inhabited the territory beyond the Roman Empire
pope from 440-461, negotiated with Attila the Hun to spare the city, stated that each pope succeeds Saint Peter rather than the previous pope, made the papacy more powerful and independent
Leo the Great
a designation for Church leaders during the early centuries of Christianity whose teachings collectively formulated Christian doctrine and practices
Church Fathers
Politician induced to become bishop of Milan
St. Ambrose
Wrote the first true autobiography, compared the Trinity to the three functions of the mind: understanding, memory, and will
St. Augustine
Augustine’s mother, prayed for him all his life
said matter is evil, to live life focused on the spirit, believed in the struggle between matter and spirit, Augustine was one
Translated the Bible into Latin
St. Jerome’s Latin translation of the Bible, means “of the common people”
The Roman peace, era of Roman Structure= peace
Pax Romana
founder of western monasticism, believed in prayer and work
sister of St. Benedict
First known Christian monk, father of monasticism, lived in the desert
Anthony of Egypt
poverty, chastity, obedience, “founded” by Benedict in the West, live simple, faithful lives, solitary
made the pope a secular ruler
Donation of Pepin
this settled the controversy for the English and Celtic Church
Synod of Whitby
Yes or “Fiat” response, not “no”
“father who rules”
Won the Battle of Tours
Charles Martel
“Favor”, the creative, sustaining, and transforming self-gift of God that is always being offered to us
Transformed the practice or penance
St. Columban
Captured by English pirates, converted Ireland, taught about the trinity by using the shamrock
St. Patrick
“servant of the servants of God”
St. Gregory the Great
Abbess, hosted the Synod of Whitby, restored Christianity to Northumbria
St. Hilda
“Apostle to Germany”, led the conversion of Germans
St. Boniface
First Holy Roman Emperor
Before Christ (B.C.)
Ante Christum
Five Patriarchates
Rome, Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, Jerusalem; Rome is the first “in honor” because Peter died there, it is the center of the Western Church, and it strived to protect itself
Four Marks of the Church
One, Holy, Catholic, Apostolic; One- One faith, one baptism, one God; Holy- blessed by God, God is Holy; Catholic- the Church is Universal, universal proclamation to all people for salvation; Apostolic- founded on the apostles
Why are Christ and the Church the paradigm for marriage?
Jesus died for us and married the Church- his holy bride. Marriage was instituted by Jesus when the lance pierced his side, and blood and water poured out, which was the Church, like Eve coming from Adam’s rib to become his wife. Christ is a part of and devoted to the Church, therefore husbands and wives become part of each other and are fully devoted to each other.
Why was Charlemagne’s crowning an insult to the emperor of Constantinople?
The crowning of Charlemagne was in 800, and it was an insult to the emperor of Constantinople because it proved that he(the emperor) was not the sole power of the East. He thought that he was the leader over all, but Charlemagne became the ruler over the Franks and proved him wrong.
had authority over Church matters, ruler of the Franks
nomadic people from the Eastern frontier
nomadic Muslims who attacked southern Italy and overtook Rome
a social form of interlocking relationships based on the use of land in payment for military services
the practice of laypersons, such as kings, appointing bishops, priests, abbots, and abbesses
Lay investiture
Church leaders in feudalism
bishops and monasteries were the largest group of landowners, they would have serfs work the land and would receive the profits, but were vassals to a strong lord or king
the payment of money to be appointed to a Church office
a rule by the medieval Church forbidding warfare during certain days
Truce of God
cardinals meeting to elect a pope
determined that popes would invest bishops with spiritual power, and the emperors would invest them with their temporal power
Concordat of Worms
responsible for the conversion of the Slavs
Saints Cyril and Methodius
the separation of the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Roman Catholic Church in 1054.
The East-West Schism
Patriarch of Constantinople at the time of the East-West Schism
Michael Cerularius
The Cardinal sent by Pope Leo IX to reconcile with the East, but ended up placing the decree of excommunication on the altar
Cardinal Humbert
disagreement caused by the Eastern emperor’s decision to condemn the use of icons in worship
Iconoclast controversy
are in union with Rome and the Catholic Church
Eastern Rite Catholics
Brought about the conversion of Scotland
St. Margaret
Started papal reforms
God guides all aspects of life
Monastary established in France focused only on prayer. Prayed liturgy of the hours. Hildebrand to Gregory
The Hierarchy of creatures is the order of living things on the planet that God made. Humans are at the top, as we were made in God’s image and likeness.
Heriarchy of creatures
means “And the Son”, which was added by the Western Church to the Nicene Creed to clear up confusion, showing that the Holy Spirit came from the Father and the Son . Church leaders in the East were angry, not only because they disagreed with the change in wording, but also because it was imposed by secular rather than Church authority, and because they were not consulted about the change.
a religiously motivated journey to a sacred shrine or holy place; important destinations were the Holy Land, Rome, and the tombs of the early martyrs
“to beg”, Religious communities whose member live among people and rely on the charity of others or work at the lowest-paying jobs available
Mendicant orders
born the son of a wealthy Italian cloth merchant, then was imprisoned for a year. He was ill for a year after his return, and had his “conversion”. When he was praying in a rundown chapel, the crucifix told him, “Repair my church”, so he sold his father’s stuff and disowned himself. He rebuilt the chapel and formed the Franciscans. He received the stigmata.
St. Francis of Assisi
Even as a young girl she was known for her devotion to prayer. She was inspired by hearing Francis preach, and she set out to follow his way of life. She ran away and entered a Benedictine convent, then entered the convent that Francis had established later on. She stopped an army attacking the city by leaving her sickbed and raising the ciborium just as they were about to attack the monastery.
St. Clare of Assisi
had some success in converting Albigensians, founded the Order of Preachers, the Dominicans, whose primary objective was to preach against heresy.
St. Dominic
heretics that believed that the physical was evil and only the spiritual to be good, similar to Manicheists
5 Proofs of St. Thomas Aquinas
From motion, from causation of existence, from possibility, from imperfection, from design