Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/10

Click to flip

10 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
How is Shari'a in Islam similar to Halakhah in Judaism?
Shari'a- "path", "way", "road"
Halakhah- "going", "walking"

Shari'a- Rules providing guidance on how Muslims are to act in every situation

Halakhah- Collective body of Jewish law (including: biblical law, talmudic law, rabbinic law, customs and traditions).
- Numerous aspects of day-to-day life.
What is the difference between Sunna and Hadith?
Sunna:
- traditions of the prophet
- what Muhammad said & did
- Passed down through oral tradition- known as "hadiths"

Hadith:
- "Story" / "report"
- records of Muhammad's words & actions
Why is hadith considered scriptural?
Because it is records of Muhammad's words and actions
When were hadiths collected?
Collected & compiled in the 8th & 9th c. CE
- Collectors sorted through to determine most "authentic" (genuine/real) hadiths
What made hadiths reliable & trustworthy?
-Most genuine and real hadiths
- Most of the "strongest" hadiths- justified what people were doing anyway (providing authority for common practice)
How did the Hadith collections help solve the problem of a "closed canon" or "fixed scripture" in Islam?
Because it was an ADDITIONAL authoritative source of law and practice

The canon was closed/fixed (Qur'an) -- Sunna (what Muhammad said and did; WWMD) -- Hadith (example of Muhammad's life, actions & words)
Why did the Hadith collections not completely solve the problem of "closed canon" or "fixed scripture"?
Because after the Hadith was collected it eventually became fixed too!
Now- back to square one...
What "tools" did Islamic jurors use to develop laws in situations not covered by the Qur'an or Sunna?
Early on:
- lots of variation --determined by judges

In 8th & 9th c.
- Ulama (class of religious scholars)
- Schools of law began to develop
- Debate (limit placed on individual reasoning)

Major Ideas- based on concensus
Why have so many Muslims since the middle ages regarded the Shari'a as basically fixed and not open to change?
Because everything important has already been decided
but -- still could be some clarification on minor issues...
Judaism, Christianity, & Islam- all fixed canon of Scripture. In what ways do they each address new situations that scripture does not consider? How is it done? Who is allowed? And what is their authority for doing so?
- Jesus' followers (the apostles) appointed teachers and leaders, who appointed others, who appointed others.
- Bishops at any given time can trace back through this line to the apostles & to Jesus himself
- Bishops have authority to make decisions b/c they were given that authority by Christ

Judaism: Oral Torah- already revealed at Sinai
Christianity: Clergy are authorized to carry on teachings.
Catholic: Relationship w/ God is through CHURCH
Protestant: Relationship w/ God is through the BIBLE