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102 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Shema
The Jewish doxology which expresses the essence of that faith.
doxology
a prayer or praise to God
Torah
The Law and teachings of the Jewish Scriptures; the first five books of those scriptures: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy
covenant
a sacred agreement, contract, testament between two parties
Habiru
A mane referring to a social group in the ancient Middle East who lived on the fringe of society, at times referring to roving bands, mercenaries, and foreign slaves. It may be that the Hebrews emeerged from one such group.
El Shaddai
the clan god of Abraham and Sarah; "God Almighty'
prophet
among the Jews, one who called the people back to the covenant and who led the people in their understanding of God
Babylonian Exile
the capture of the Jewish leadership and exile of this group into the Babylonian empire from 587 to 536 BCE
Zealots
A militant faction within Judaism in the first centure CE that led a revolt against the Romans in order to free the Jewsih homeland from Roman control in 66 CE. Romans burned the temple.
synagogue
In Judaism, a special building for worship and instruction
Talmud
a collection of Jewish laws and traditions; a compilation of Jewish doctrine and discipline based and built on the Torah
Adonai
a Jewish name for God which menas "Lord"
traits of Jewish God
God is one. God is personal. God is saving. God is faithful. God is above all.
Sabbath
a day of worship and rest; in Judaism, from sundown on Friday to sundown on Saturday.
Rosh Hashanah
Jewish celebration of the new year.
Yom Kippur
a Jewish Day of Atonement.
Sukkot
The Jewish autumn harvest celebration; Feast of Booths or Feast of Tabernacles.
Hanukkah
The Jewish Festival of Lights or Feast of Dedication celebrated in December. celebrates religios freedome and loyalty.
Purim
A Jewish winter feast which recalls the biblical story of Esther who fasted three days before apporaching the king on behalf of her people
Pesah or Passover
The Jewish spring festival recalling the Exodus; includes seder meal.
Shavu'ot
The Jewish feast celebrated on the fiftieth day after Passover; the Feast of Weeks or Pentecost. Considered the birthday of the Juwish religion, recalling the time Moses received the Ten Commandments on Mount Sinai.
Pentecost
The Jewish festival of Shavu'ot, commemorating the giving of the Ten Commandments by God to Moses; the Christian feast celebrated fifty days after Easter, which celebrates the gift of the Holy Spirit to the first Christians
resurrection
a rising from the dead; belief in the resurrection of Jesus is common among Christians
Gospel
One of four books in the Christian Scriptures (Gospels, Acts of the Apostles, Letters, Book of Revelation) Includes books of Matthew, Mark, Luke and John. Deals with the life and teachings of Jesus; literally, the word means "good news"
Three Christian churches
Catholic, Orthodox, Protestant
Trinitarian
characterized by belief in one God in three persons; in general, the Christian understanding of God
baptistm
initiation into the Christian community by water (immersion, pouting over the head, or sprinkling) and the words, "I baptized you in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit."
sacrament
a sign or symbol which expresses the Holy as understood by members of a particular religion; for Christians, a sacrament is a visible sign of the action of Jesus in their lives
revelation
that which God has disclosed to people about God, human beings, the meaning of life and death, and the world as a whole.
liturgy
public acts of worship
minaret
muslim tower with balconies used for the announcement of prayers
Allah
THE God, in Islam
jinn
Sprites or spirits (sometimes described as similar to elves or fairies) capable of taking on human forms and of influencing human beings for good or evil; spiritual beings between humans and angels.
Quran
the holy writings of Islam
Ishmael
Son of Abraham by the servant woman Hagar
Makkah
the holy city of Islam, located in Saudi Arabia; in the West. Where Muslims direct their prayer toward
Hegira
Muhammad's flight from Makka to Medina
shahada
Islamic public profession of acceptance of Allah as the One God and Muhammad as the messenger of God.
salat
the duty of Muslim men to pray, including the obligatory five times daily.
mosque
The Muslim house of prayer and worship
Imam
the leader of prayer in a mosque
zakat
the Muslim obligation to give alms for the care of the poor and needy
Ramadan
the Muslim obligation to fast during the ninth lunar month in the Arabian calendar
Muslim Pillars of Faith
profession of faith (shahada), obligation to pray (salat), giving of alms (zakat), fasting, pilgrimage to Makkah (hajj)
Ka'ba
the rectangular sacred shrine of Islam located in the courtyard of the Great Mosque in Makkah
hajj
The Muslim obligation to make a pilgrimage to the Ka'ba in Makkah
jihad
Islamic holy war to spread Muslim rule
Hadith
a collection of Muhammad's words, sayings, explanations, and examples to help the believer follow the Quran
caste
a division in Hindu society based on one's position in life, determined by birth into that group
Hinduism
the basic religion of India, marked by contemplation and self-denial for religious reasons
Brahman
For Hindus, the transpersonal ultimate divine reality (or the Absolute, or the Godhead), primal souce of the universe and ultimate goal of all beings
Brahma
Hindu god who is the Creator
Vishnu
the Hindu god who is the Preserver
Shiva
the Hindu god who is the Destroyer
panentheism
belief that the whole of reality is in God
Upanishads
a collection of philosophical and mystical texts dealing with Atman and Brahman; they are appended to the Vedas and are a major part of the Hindu Scriptures considered to have divine origin
Atman
the true self or sould of each individual, the soul being divine and eternal and beyond the ego or personality
nirvana
In Hinduism, a state in which a person is united with his or her deepest self, Brahman
reincarnation
rebirth into a higher or lower form of life according to how well or how poorly a previous life was lived
moksha
release from the endless cycle of rebirth~ such a one is utterly free of the unreal self and enters the state of eternal union, or true self
law of karma
the moral law of cause and effect; the Hindu connection between how one acts and consequences for those actions.
yoga
a system or physical and mental discipline designed to achieve a spiritual purpose
Hindu ways to untion with Ultimate Reality
through knowledge (jnana yoga), through love (bhakti yoga), through work (karma yoga), through psychological experience (raja yoga)
guru
a spiritual director, teacher, or guide, in the Hindu tradition
Krishna
a popular and important incarnation of Vishnu in Hinduism.
Kali
the Hindu goddess who destroys evil
Vedas
four collections of religious material containing prayers, ritual, liturgy, hymns, and spells and charms of a popular nature
Brahmanas
a collection of writings for priests containing directions for sacrifice of Hindu
Bhagavad Gita
a book of Hindu Scripture containing the story of Lard Krishna, who is the source of the manifestations of Vishnu
samskaras
Hindu sacred life-cycle rituals
Buddhusm
a way of life based on the Four Noble Truths and the Eightfold Path
the Buddha
Siddhartha Guatama, The Awakened or Enlightened One
ascetic
One who dedicates his or her life to the pursuit of contemplative ideals, and practices extreme self denial for religious reasons
Four Noble Truths
According to Buddha, four principles for living that lead to happiness. 1. All things in the world untail sorrow and suffering. 2. The cause of suffering is desire, the craving of the pleasures of life. 3. The end of suffering will come only when the craving for pleasure is ended; one must let go of one's desires. 4. The end of craving will come if a person follows the Eightfold Path to perfection.
Eightfold Path
Eight steps or modes of being and acting necessary in the Buddhist way of life. 1. right views 2 right thought 3. right speech 4. right conduct 5. right livelihood 6. right effort 7. right mindfulness 8. right concentration
ego-self
our own views of ourselves, which is highly subjective and biased according to our personal ego needs
Theravada Buddhism
a division of Buddhism which stresses the sangha (the brotherhood of monks) as the means of following the dhamma (the essential quality or character of Buddhism)
dhamma
the essential quality or character of Buddhism
bodhisattva
In Buddhism, one who is on the threshold of nirvana but postpones his or her own entry to help others reach nirvana
Mahayana Buddhism
a major division of Buddhism which extends the goal of Buddhism to laypersons, as well as to monks, the goal being a godly existence of self-sacrifice and compassion, as well as nirvana
Tantric (Mantrayana) Buddhism
a division of Buddhism which combined Mahayana Buddhism with Tantric cults of India, includes many deities and spirits
Zen Buddhism
a school of Mahayana Buddhism which has successfully conveyed to the West certain aspects of the Buddha's teachings; its hallmark is contemplation. It is the form of Buddhism practiced in Japan.
satori
Glimpse of enlightenment (achievement in a flash) about life
Pali Canon
a collection of revered Buddhist writings recorded from oral traditions and codified and standardized in the first century CE; they contain sermons, rules, and essays on philosophy and psychology
yang
a general term referring to any active or positive principle
yin
a general term referring to any receptive or nagative principle
Confucianism
a moral/ethical system developed by the Chinese philosopher Confucius, which emphasizes patience and moral acting
Kung-Fu-tzu
Confucius, "Kung the Teacher"
Taoism
a religious system of China which teaches the importance of untion with and balance in nature
Tao
the nameless, formless eternal principle that governs the universe, or the Path, or Way, that the universe (nature) follows; as used in Taoism, it means roughly "The Way Life Is"
Lao-Tzu
Legendary author of the Tao Te Ching ("The Way and Its Power"), from which Taoism evolved
Tao Te Ching
"The Way and Its Power," the foundational book of Taoism
estoric
meant for only the select few who have special knowledge, not sommon or ordinary, not simple
wu wei
Taoism principle translated roughly as "let go" or "let it happen;" act in harmony with the nature of what on is dealing with
Shinto
a Japaneseform of the Chinese shin tao, meaning "the way of the kami" the native religion of Japan
kami
for the early Japanese, the forces of nature; related to nature worship and ancestor worship in Japan today.
ceremonies of shinto involve four elements
purification to remove all pollution, unrighteousness, and evil. offerings. prayers. sacred feast.
zazen
a meditation technique used by Zen Buddhists in Japan
Koan
Zen paradox- arresting question which tends to halt one's "thinding about things," to create doubt and anguish in order to awaken a deeper level of the mind beyond the discursive intellect
roshi
a mater "certified" to "teach" Zen
haiku
a form of Japanese poetry known for its simplicity
bodhisattva
In shintoism, the human form of a Shinto god