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179 Cards in this Set

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Criterion of Contextual Credibility
*1/3 criteria (others are Independent Attestation and Dissimilarity)
*maintains that saying or deed of Jesus must fall in Palestininan context or not be regarded as authentic
*example: in John 3, Jesus states "you must be born again" - cannot be translated the same way in Aramaic as in Greek - either conversation didn't take place or Jesus didn't say it
remember to give example
Dead Sea Scrolls
*found at the northwest edge of dead sea
* thought to have been written by the Essenes around 66-70 CE, around Maccabean times to Jewish War
* contains most of books found in Hebrew Bible except Esther
* valuable because 1000 years older than oldest Hebrew scriptures
*learn a lot about Essene community
* written mostly in Hebrew, some Aramaic
* War scroll (the end times): that God ensures victory for Essene community over Romans and apostate Jews
mention: history, language written in, and importance to NT
Criterion of Dissimililarity
*1/3 criterion (others are: Contextual Credibility and Independent Attestation)
* if there are references or statements made in the NT that do not coincide/support the agenda of early Christians then most likely to be authentic - these statements are difficult to explain therefore more likely to have not been made-up
* rooted in fact that Christians made-up or changed most of Jesus stories
*example: Jesus being baptized by John the Baptist, Jesus (the messiah) being crucified, Judas betraying Jesus
give: definition, explanation to how this can show historical accuracy of NT, examples
Fourth Philosophy
* the violent Jews
* unnamed group of Jews given in Josephus account
*wanted violent overthrow of Romans and people who occupied Holy Land b/c they believe God gave it to them
* Jesus also thought that Roman empire should be overthrown but not violently
*zealots: one group within the Fourth Philosophy-urged violent overthrow
*example: Sicarii ("dagger") and Zealots planned & carried out killings of Jewish officials on Roman's side
*67 B.C.E.
mention: who they were, found in what account, relate to Jesus how?,examples
Four-Source Hypothesis
* a solution to the "synoptic problem" found in the NT synoptics
* explains why the synoptics have some words that are the same verbatim, have different stories, and have same stories but small differences
* four sources:
M, L, Q, and Mark (explain each)
* explain how the method works (women present at tomb)
* looking at differences we can see what each author was trying to emphasize in their books
definition, importance to NT, example
Epicureans
* ancient followers of Epicurus (greek philosopher)- 1st c. CE
* maintained that gods far removed from human life, people not scared of gods
* happiness comes through enjoying simple pleasures in life
* similar to Christianity in that they: insisted on validity of own views, intolerant to others, and had missionary movements
similar groups are Stoics and Platonists

give: definition & importance to NT
Essenes
* very pious Jewish sect during Jesus' time
* not mentioned in Bible, but in Josephus accounts
* thought to have written the Dead Sea Scrolls
* believed that the end was imminent and that God would rid the world of evil and other unpious Jews (Sadducees and Pharisees)
* believed in 2 messiahs: one king, one a priest
* Essenes not mentioned in the Bible shows that perhaps Jesus was a Pharisee himself b/c he never argued with the Essenes, shows that Jesus was close to the Pharisees
definition/history, doctrine/tenets?, relate to NT/Jesus how?
Gentile
*Jewish designation for "non-Jew"
* Matthew: states that Gentiles grasped who Jesus really was, Jews stayed outside the kingdom
* Luke: empasized that salvation is for Gentiles and Jews
* Acts: Paul decides to take the good news to the Gentiles (Jews too stubborn)
definition, what do some of the books say about the Gentiles?
Greco-Roman World
*the lands and culture around the Meditteranean area during the rule of Alexander the Great to Constantie ~ 300 BCE to 300 CE
* Greek cultured flourished under Alexander the Great, helped unify all the lands of the Meditteranean through Greek language
* Roman culture intertwined with Greek culture - shared Greek language, similar gods
* Christianity emerged in this world
* NT context set in the Greco-Roman world
history of how greco-roman world came to be, importance to Christianity/NT?
Hanina ben Dosa
*Galilean Rabbi of 1st c. CE, miracle worker ~ Jesus
* Like Jesus, empowered by God to perform miracles, cast out demons, heal sick; also called the "Son of God" by God several times
* unlike Jesus, had to pray to God in order to heal/miracalize/cast demons
*showed that during Greco-Roman times "Son of God" and miracle workers were not unusual therefore Jesus was not a shock to people back then
Who was he, similarites/dissimilarities to Jesus, importance to NT
Haruspex
*Roman priests who looked at extispicy (entrails of sacrificed animals)
*showed that communication with god is not 1 way, god talks back through animals!
* if entrails not probably burned, position is funny, etc. then sacrificed again
* relation to NT (maybe?): these sacrifices no longer necessary with death of Christ - the ultimate sacrifice
{related terms: extispicy, Auspicy, Augurs, cult, Daimonia}
Hasmoneans
*another name for Maccabean family
* family of Jewish priests who ruled Israel from 167 BCE until Roman conquest in 63 BCE
* led the revolt against Syrian rule and then ended up being the rulers over Israel
* appointed one of their own to be the high Jewish priest (as opposed to a Jewish priest from the line of Zadok whom everybody wanted)
*after Roman conquest by Pompey the Jewish priest continued to be the head people of that area - administrative liaison with Jewish leadership
who were they, how did they get to their position, importance to Greco-Roman context of NT
Hellenization
*spread of Greek language and culture througout Med, started w/ conquest by Alexander the Great
*caused unity throughout Med.
*Rome was hellenized
* Bible written in Greek, allowed the spread of the Gospel to be fast
{related words: Alex the Great, Greco-Roman Worlds}
Hellenization
*spread of Greek language and culture througout Med, started w/ conquest by Alexander the Great
*caused unity throughout Med.
*Rome was hellenized
* Bible written in Greek, allowed the spread of the Gospel to be fast
{related words: Alex the Great, Greco-Roman Worlds}
Hasmoneans
*another name for Maccabean family
* family of Jewish priests who ruled Israel from 167 BCE until Roman conquest in 63 BCE
* led the revolt against Syrian rule and then ended up being the rulers over Israel
* appointed one of their own to be the high Jewish priest (as opposed to a Jewish priest from the line of Zadok whom everybody wanted)
*after Roman conquest by Pompey the Jewish priest continued to be the head people of that area - administrative liaison with Jewish leadership
who were they, how did they get to their position, importance to Greco-Roman context of NT
Haruspex
*Roman priests who looked at extispicy (entrails of sacrificed animals)
*showed that communication with god is not 1 way, god talks back through animals!
* if entrails not probably burned, position is funny, etc. then sacrificed again
* relation to NT (maybe?): these sacrifices no longer necessary with death of Christ - the ultimate sacrifice
{related terms: extispicy, Auspicy, Augurs, cult, Daimonia}
Hasmoneans
*another name for Maccabean family
* family of Jewish priests who ruled Israel from 167 BCE until Roman conquest in 63 BCE
* led the revolt against Syrian rule and then ended up being the rulers over Israel
* appointed one of their own to be the high Jewish priest (as opposed to a Jewish priest from the line of Zadok whom everybody wanted)
*after Roman conquest by Pompey the Jewish priest continued to be the head people of that area - administrative liaison with Jewish leadership
who were they, how did they get to their position, importance to Greco-Roman context of NT
Literary-Historical Method
method used to study literary text by:
looking at its genre text, how it functioned in its historical context, find its historical meaning in light of its literary characteristics

Example: Mark - Greco-Roman biography Genre - contains stories in chronological order (strictly for organizational purposes), character traits constant throughout person's life, miraculous pronounced, great persons were who they were
Maccabean revolt
167 BCE
uprising against syrian ki)ng Antiochus Epiphanes (the one who tried to force Jews to accept Greek culture, no circumcision, convert Jewish temple into pagan sanctuary)
Manuscript
any handwritten copy of literary text
written on papyrus, bound in leather, mostly in greek

examples: Nag Hammadi Library & Dead Sea Scrolls
Marcion
2nd Century Christian Scholar

labeled "heretic" for docetic Christology
belief in 2 gods - Marcionites based on his beliefs
Markan Priority
argument based on:

1. patterns of agreement (verbatim)
2. sequences of events
3. characteristics changed (grammar corrected)
Sanhedrin
council of Jewish leades headed by High Priest, the ones who took care of religious and civil affairs within the Jewish community
*made mostly of Sadducees
*Jesus was trialed in front of the Sanhedrin, here he confessed that he is the Son of God and that the Son of Man (the cosmic judge) will soon be arriving
*Sanhedrin delivered him to Pilate
Gospel of Matthew
Jesus = the New Moses, Jesus saves people from sins
Gospel of Mark
Jesus = the Suffering Song of God, Jesus must suffer humiliation and death for the sake of others - fulfills God's will
Gospel of Luke
Jesus - the rejected prophet, Death is atoning sacrifice - convicts people to realize they are sinful and repent to God, Jesus' rejection by Jews spread over to Gentiles
Gospel of John
Jesus = both human and divine, Johannine Prologue - Jesus is the Word & God, references from: Signs source, Discourse source, and Passion source, deeds are extraordinary, upholds beliefs by Christians today
Adoptionists
*sacred book is similar to the Gospel of Matthew - in Hebrew, no NT canon
*become Jew to follow Jesus
*get to heaven: follow Jesus, keep Jewish law
* popular in: Palestine (east of Jordan River)
Marcionites
*docetic-view
*sacred text: 10 letters by Paul + truncated version of Luke (no OT)
*God of Jews = unjust, God of Jesus = just and good; Jesus came to deliver people from God of Jews
* jewish law rejected
* popular in: Asia Minor (Turkey)
Gnosticism
*Jesus = man; Christ = God's spirit in Jesus
* Text: Gospel of John, Thomas, Mary, Phillip, and Truth (last 4 found in Nag Hammadi Library)
*obtain Gnosis from Jesus, freed from realm of matter and receive salvation
* popular in: Egypt, Syria, Asian Minor, Rome, Gaul
"Proto-Orthodox" Christians
4th century C.E.

Popular: throughout Mediterranean
Apocalypticism
* 167 C.E. (mid 2nd century)
* cosmic judge not necessarily Jesus
* tenets: P.I.V.D. - end is near
* heaven by: repenting, keeping faithful to True God
* holy text: parts of Torah
* popular in: Palestine
Ebionites
2nd-C. Adoptionists
* Jesus = ultimate sacrifice
* text = "Gospel harmony" - all synoptics as one book - in Greek
* Jews no longer need to make animal sacrifices --> VEGEtarians
Literary-Historical
look @ lit. text by:
1. look at how genre effected by context
2. determine historical meaning from literary characteristics

example: Greco-Roman Biography -
~ found in Synoptics
1. character traits consistent throughout entire life
2. miraculous pronounced
3. events occur chronologically strictly for organizational purposes
Redactional Method
study how author edited or modified text to fit their own concerns and views

example: Mark - secrecy motif prevails (calming storm, missing body); in Matthew - Jesus is open about being messiah (boat scene, appearing to disciples)
Comparative Method
study between one source and one or more others w/out being concerned whether they were used as its sources

~allows us to focus on what author kept in tact instead of what was altered

Example: Luke (unlike Mark & Matthew) has:
1. "general history" preface
2. address to "Theophilus"
3. 2 part volume
Thematic Method
study by:
1. isolate themes
2. see how themes are developed
3. try to understand author's overarching emphasis through use of themes

Example: Peter's 12 disciples schpiel
Contextual Method
study text by:
1. look at social/historical context
2. see how to explain text from context

~prevents biases from our own time to interfere with true message

example: John's social context - written by author who is against seccessionists
Socio-Historical Method
use text to reconstruct the social history of community behind the text (the context)

~ historical experiences of author will affect the way material is presented and way traditions are preserved

example: In John, Jesus presented with both high and low Christology (and the age of parts of text). this reflects divergent Christologies of Johannine Community and separation from synagogue
Aeons
a
Alexander the Great
a
Antiochus Epiphanes
a
antitheses
a
apocalypse
a
adoptionism
a
apocalypticism
a
apocrypha
a
Apollonius of Tyana
a
Apology
"defense" - luke and acts
apostle
a
apostolic fathers
a
associations, voluntary
most common: burial societies and trade organizations
augurs
a
auspicy
a
B.C.E./C.E.
a
beattitudes
a
beloved disciple
a
canon
a
catholic
a
christ
a
christology
a
contextual method
a
contextual credibility, criterion of
a
cosmos
a
convenant
a
cult
a
cynics
a
daimonia
a
dead sea scrolls
a
demeter
a
demiurge
a
deutero-pauline epistels
a
diaspora
a
disciple
a
dissimilarity, criterion of
a
divination
a
docetism
a
ebionites
a
the egyptian
a
the epicureans
a
equestrian
a
eschatology
a
essenes
a
exspicy
a
fourth philosophy
a
4-source hypothesis
a
gamaliel
a
gamaliel
a
gematria
a
genious
a
gentile
a
gnosticism
a
greco-roman world
a
hanina ben dosa
a
haruspex
a
hellenization
a
heracleon
a
heresy
a
high priest
a
historiography
a
holy of holies
a
honi the circle drawer
a
independent attestation, criterion of
a
isis
a
josephus
a
judas maccabeus
a
judicial model
a
justification by faith
a
justin martyr
a
literary-historical method
a
L
a
lares
a
M
a
maccabean revolt
a
manuscript
a
marcion
a
markan priority
a
melito of sardis
a
messiah
a
mishnah
a
mithras
a
muretorian fragment
a
mystery cults
a
nag hammadi
a
oracle
a
origin
a
orthodoxy
a
paganism
a
papyrus
a
parousia
a
participationist
a
model
a
passion
a
passover
a
pastoral epistles
a
pauline corpus
a
penates
a
pentateuch
a
pentacost
a
persephone
a
pesher
a
pharisees
a
philo
a
prescript
a
proto-orthodox christians
a
pseudipigrapha
a
pseudonymity
a
Q source
a
Qumran
a
Redaction Criticism
a
rhetoric
diatribe
roman empire
a
sadducees
a
samaritans
a
sanhedrin
a
scripes, christian
a
scribes, jewish
a
senators
a
septaugint
a
sermon on the mount
a
sicarii
a
signs source
a
socio-historical method
a
son of God
a
stoics
a
superstition
a
synogogue
a
synoptic gospels
a
talmud
a
tertaulian
a
textual criticism
a
thecla
a
theudas
a
torah
a
tradition
a
2 ways
a
undisputed pauline epistles
7 books - 40-50 C.E.
valentinus
a
zealots
a