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79 Cards in this Set

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-the attribution of human characteristics to a nonhuman being, usually a deity
-Genesis 2:4-3:24 is the second account of creation; Yahweh plants a garden in Eden, takes a walk in the garden, and makes clothes for the man and woman
-account of the origins of the world; in the Ancient Near East cosmologies are usually creation myths
-Genesis and Enuma elish
-an account of how the creator deity ordered already existing matter and didn't delve into philosophical question of ultimate origins
divine council
-assembly of gods and high god presides
-Yahweh is head in the Bible, and prophets claim to witness/participate in its meetings
-in Enuma elish, side with Marduk to kill Tiamat's ally Qingu
-Hebrew for god/gods; often for Yahweh and translated "God"
-can be singular or plural
-even though translated as "the Lord", just a substitution for the sacred and personal name of God, YHWH
-clay creature in Gilgamesh epic; lived on fringes of civilization
-he falls with prostitutes temptations
-his death inspired Gilgamesh to to search for immortality
Enuma elish
-"when above"
-the Babylonian creation epic; work on 7 tablets that describe how god Marduk becomes king of gods and chief god of Babylon
-reflects rise to power of Babylon under Neb. I
-hero of the epic; searches for immortality after Enkidu dies with him
-searches for Utnapishtim, the only human to have found immortality (besides his wife)
-went after plant that would restore youth, but serpent stole it
-chief god of Babylon; storm god in Enuma elish
-said he could defeat sea goddess Tiamat if he was made supreme power among gods
-formed cosmos from Tiamat's body when defeated her
-creates humans out of Qingu's blood and rewards other gods with this
-traditional narrative concerning remote past where gods/goddesses are the main characters
-early Genesis chapters are expressions of origins of the world, society, civilization, and the principal agent is god of Israel
-day of rest; 7th day; even a year
-one of the religious messages of the first account of creation; observance part of the very fabric of universe
-also God commands Moses and the Israelites to keep this day holy when he gives them the commandments in Exodus 20
-"4 letters" or 4 consonants: YHWH; in reference to god of Israel
-eventually not pronounced at all b/c though to be so sacred, even though used before many many times
-substitutions made, such as adonay, which means "the Lord"; translations followed suit after and actual pronunciation of YHWH lost
-goddess of primeval salt water in Enuma elish
-mixed waters with fresh water god of Apsu and first generation of gods were born: earth and sky
-kills younger gods when they kill Apsu, and then defeated by Marduk, the youngest god
-out of her body is formed the cosmos
tree of life
-in Garden of Eden whose fruit provided immortality
-theme found in many cultures, of immortality and eternal youth
-often depicted in art and seven branched candlestick of Jewish tradition (menorah) is stylized representation of it
tree of knowledge of good and evil
-its fruit is forbidden in the garden of Eden
-after man and woman eat of it, they realize they are naked and cover themselves
-may be a figure of speech called merism: a totality is expressed by mentioning the opposite extremes
-by saying not to eat of it is to bar them from acquiring divine omniscience
-eating a metaphor for sex in many cultures?
-personal name of God of Israel
-originally represented with 4 consonants: YHWH called the tetragrammaton
-thought to be sacred and not to be said so substitutions like adonay and original pronunciation lost
-narrative explaining origin of custom, ritual, geographical feature, name, or other phenomenon
-Tower of Babel in Genesis 11:1-9; explanation for multiplicity of languages
-family history in form of list of descendants
-Genesis 4, from Adam to Enosh, interrupted with story of Cain and Abel and short stories about Cain's descendants
-most in Genesis belong to P, but also to J as well
-hero in Gilgamesh who tells Gilgamesh of the flood when he inquires how they attained immortality
-he and his family survived the flood by a boat that he built according to instructions of one of the gods; offered sacrifice after the Flood
-sacrifice smell reminded gods why humans created in first place, and gave Utnapishtim and his wife immortality--an unrepeatable event
-Deuteronomic source according to Documentary Hypothesis
-dated to about 650 BCE and originating in the northern kingdom of Israel
-emphasizes importance of ONE locus of worship
-stresses importance of obedience and blessings
-found virtually in Deut. alone
Deuteronomic History
-Joshua, Judges, 1&2 Samuel, 1&2 Kings
-4 time periods: Moses, conquest of land, various tribes are self-ruling, and monarchy
-form narrative history of Israel in Promised Land
-produced in several editions in 7th century BCE by Deut. Historians, who were informed by the principles of Deuteronomy; BUT accounts it narrates happened 500 years earlier
-overarching perspectives are blessings/curses depending on obedience to God
Documentary Hypothesis
-theory by Wellhausen in 1878 that explains repetitions and inconsistencies in Pentateuch, as result of originally independent sources combined over centuries
-J E D P
-Elohist source found in Genesis through Numbers
-originates in northern kingdom of Ephraim
-deity more remote than J, revealing himself indirectly through dreams, visions, and divine messengers
-fragmentarily represented in Pentateuch (edited); often combined with J
-Yahwist source
-narratives located in south so thought to originate from southern kingdom of Judah
-anthropomorphic portrayal of divinity (makes clothes for man and woman, eats meal with Abraham, smells sacrifice of Moses)
-theme of promises to Abraham: land, descendants, blessing
-priestly source in Genesis through Numbers and end of Deut.
-probly originates in south
-emphasis on ritual and legal customs
-presents accounts for the laws
-deity is more remote and powerful than previous sources; doesn't reveal himself directly OR indirectly
-Greek for "5 books"
-Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy
-Moses widely accepted as the sole author or the Pentateuch, until Wellhausen proposed Documentary Hypothesis
-implausabilities with Moses: describes his death and talks in third person
-first 3 parts of the Hebrew Bible (5 books of Moses)
-"teaching" "instruction" "law"
-German scholar and wrote "A History of Israel"--classic formulation of Documentary Hypothesis
-name of Promised Land before Israelite conquest
-entire southern Levant
-Canaanites (inhabitants) descendants of Noah's grandson Canaan (Genesis 9)
-often ruled by Egyptians
Dead Sea
-large body of water in Rift Valley that Jordan River flows into
-lowest point on landmass of earth
-high mineral content and no life because of evaporation; gives it its name
-helps to form natural boundary between Israel and regions to the east
-setting for story of Sodom and Gomorrah in Gen. 19
Fertile Crescent
-arable area of land from southern Mesopotamia in all directions toward Levant
-linked by shared culture, related languages, and imperial control by various powers
-new name given to Jacob in Genesis 32:28 and his 12 sons becomes ancestors of the tribes of Israel
-designates people and geopolitical entity formed from the 12 tribes
-name of Northern kingdom of Israel, not southern
-one of Jacob's 12 sons and ancestor of tribe of Judah
-dominated Southern Israel and became the S kingdom
-later called Judea
-western part of Near East, made of modern countries of Syria, Lebanon, Israel, Palestine, and Jordan
-lands just east of the Med. Sea
-"the land in the middle of the rivers"
-fertile floodplain between Tigris and Euphrates Rivers and makes up modern Iraq/N Syria
Promised Land
-promised by God to Abraham and his descendants
-boundaries vary, but corresponds roughly to territory of modern Israel and Palestine
-because of the golden calf incident, Moses and the original exodus population are not allowed to enter into it (except Caleb and Joshua); they wander for 40 years
-sign of the covenant between God and Abraham and to be performed on all of Abraham's male descendants on 8th day after birth
-originated as rite of passage at puberty, when a boy became adult AND allowed to marry; Genesis 34 when Jacob's sons insisted that Shechem who raped sister Dinah be circumcised
-common Semitic word meaning "god" and used of any deity
-Canaanite high god, but also god of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob; later at Moses for Yahweh
-name of the creator deity in Ugaritic texts and presides over divine council
-the god in the epic of Kirta; he appears to Kirta in a dream (after his kids die and his wife leaves him) and gives him lengthy instructions for preparing an expedition to another city, where he will obtain a wife
-custom of marrying within one's ethic or religious group
-social convention of ancestral narratives
-for survival of community's identity and keeping its property within the group
-issue of intermarriage divided Israelites/Judaism
-Moses and Zipporah of Midian
form criticism
-looking at earlier units and traditions that the Pentateuchal sources adapted and incorporated into their narratives
-begins by trying to identify a form, or genre, and then to determine its function in its original context
-example: etiological narrative; shrines attributed to Abraham and Isaac in Genesis 21 and 26
-original narratives are earlier than the genealogies, and probly very old
-Herman Gunkel
Herman Gunkel
-commentaries on Genesis and Psalms applied form criticism to Bible in early 20th century
-hero of Ugaritic epic named for him
-his kids die and his wife leaves him, so El reveals to him in a dream that he needs to go to a specific city to find a wife
-on his way, he stops at shrine and vows to goddess Asherah that he will give her gold if he is successful. he gets a wife and goes home and is blessed by the gods and she produces sons and daughters
-Asherah punishes him with life-threatening illness b/c didn't fulfill vow
-many connections with biblical literature: childless ancestors, divine promise of offspring, journey for a wife, and birth of children
redaction criticism
-how earlier sources and traditions that the Pentateuch adapted and incorporated were shaped into their final form
-artificial mound formed from stratified accumulated debris of successive human occupations
-parallels understanding chapters of Genesis: within it are fragments of very ancient tradition; and difficult to reconstruct the earliest levels with any certainty; but can be an illuminating attempt
tradition history
-study of stages in development of genre, theme, or concept prior to its incorporation into text
-Semitic language closely related to Hebrew used in 2nd millenium BCE texts from site of Ugarit on Mediterranean coast of Syria
-Ugaritic texts include myths and epics that hsed light on Canaanite religion: Kirta
-Canaanite storm-god
-in Ugaritic Baal cycle, threatened by Prince Sea (with support of El) but defeats him and acclaimed king of the gods
-epithet "rider on the clouds"
-Yahweh has similar characteristics of storm-god: acquires a temple, reveals himself on a mountain in storm, and voice like thunder
-language of ancient and modern Israel; first named in prologue to book of Sirach
-used of individuals/groups living outside homeland
-name used in E and D for Mt. Sinai
-where God gave the 10 commandments to Moses
-spring festival commemorating exodus from Egypt
-2 spring rituals (agricultural and pastoral; festival of unleavened bread and sacrifice of firstborn lamb) combined as part of process of Israel's emergence in Canaan; farmers and shepherds (diff. groups) joined as one entity
-eating of unleavened bread explains haste of Israelites to flee Egypt
-eating of lamb recalls slaughter of lambs whose blood was on doorposts of Israelites in Egypt
Reed Sea
-body of water the Israelites crossed in their exodus from Egypt
-later identified as Red Sea, but more likely one of several smaller bodies of water/wetlands east of Nile Delta
-Bitter Lakes or Lake Timsah
-"yam suf"
-mountain where God revealed himself to Moses and made covenant with Israel
-in J source
-used by modern scholars to refer to appearance of a deity to humans, usually with appropriate manifestations of divine power
-God appears to Moses and calls him to lead Israel out of Egypt (Ex. 3:1-4:17)
apodictic law
-characterized by absolute or general commands or prohibitions
-in the Covenant Code in Exodus 21:17 "whoever curses his father or mother shall be put to death"
-often contrasted with casuistic law
ark of the covenant
-religious symbol of premonarchic confederation of 12 tribes of Israel, later installed in Temple in Jerusalem by Solomon in 10th century BCE
-formed footstool for cherubim throne on which Yahweh thought to be invisibly seated
-carried by God's people with Joshua on way to Promised Land; used it to separate the Jordan River
casuistic law
-case law, often in form of conditional sentence, where specific situations addressed
-Ex. 21:33-34 "if a man leaves a pit open, or digs a pit and does not cover it, and an ox or donkey falls into it, the one responsible for the pit shall make restitution, giving silver to the owner, but keeping the dead animal"
-composite supernatural beings (angels?) who function as guardians of entrance to garden of Eden in Gen. 3:24
-outstretched wings over ark of covenant support throne of Yahweh
Code of Hammurapi
-ancient collection of laws issued by Babylonian king Hammurapi in mid-18th century BCE
-one of the most complete of the law codes that has survived
-nearly 300 laws, all in form of particular cases and circumstances, dealing with perjury, theft, banking, marriage, etc.
-written in first person
-principle purpose of the code and similar texts is the glorification of royal power; no evidence of it being cited as body of precedent of principle
Covenant Code
-Ex. 20:22-23:33
-"book of the covenant"
-mostly casuistic law, like code of hammurapi, but also some apodictic laws
-differs along with other biblical codes b/c includes regulations about worship with the laws dealing with criminal and civil matters; they frame them to emphasize sacred character of collection
golden calf
-Israelites worshipped at Mt. Sinai (Horeb?) according to Ex. 32
-caused Moses to break the two tablets with the commandments on them
-was Aaron responsible/involved?
-similar statues worshipped at shrines of Bethel and Dan in Northern kingdom of Israel
Ritual Decalogue
-replacement copy of 10 commandments that Moses received from God after he broke first set b/c of anger at golden calf incident
-exclusively concerned with worship, as in Ex. 34:10-26
-moveable shrine that served as Israelites' place of worship after exodus from Egypt
-described in detail in Ex. 26
-"tent of meeting"
Day of Atonement
-fall ritual of purification, in Lev. 16
-use of scapegoat?
-Yom Kippur
Holiness Code
-Leviticus 17-26
-generally recognized as originally independent source with main theme holiness of Yahweh and his people
-comparable to other collections of biblical law, such as covenant code and deuteronomic code
-close parallels between it and Ezekiel; probly preceded Ezekiel, but could have both been drawing upon established priestly traditions
-ends with blessings and curses, and curses often reflect experience of exile in 6th century BCE
-ritual offering of food/incense to a deity
-gift to God: minhah is gift from inferior to superior
-as a gift, may serve to appease angry deity, thank supportive deity, or motivate deity to help offerer
-may also serve as collection and distribution system for agricultural products, both animals and crops: taxation
-burnt offering, grain offering, sacrifice of well-being, sin offering
-goat "for Azazel" (Lev. 16-10)
-Azazel probly originally a desert demon, to which sins of community symbolically transferred on Day of Atonement
-10% of commodities (produce/livestock) considered belonging to God
-universal taxation, paying for maintenance of clergy and monarchy itself
-enabled redistribution of goods
avenger of blood
-closest male relative legally responsible for his kin; usually in matters of death/property
-Numbers 35 assigns 6 cities as "cities of refuge"; provide asylum for someone who has taken another's life, until matter of guilt can be resolved; if unintentional, can live in city of refuge and protected from avenger of blood
-if killer leaves city, he may be killed by avenger
cities of refuge
-6 of the 48 cities assigned to the Levites, 3 on each side of Jordan
-provide asylum for someone who has taken another's life, until matter of guilt can be resolved; if unintentional, can live in city of refuge and protected from avenger of blood
-if killer leaves city, he may be killed by avenger
Deuteronomic Code
-core of Deuteronomy in ch. 12-26
-consisting of ancient laws that differ in many details from those found in books of Ex. and Lev.
-not comprehensive, but variety of topics: religious ceremonies and ritual purity, civil and criminal law, and the conduct of war
-Israelites to eliminate all aspects of worship of other gods and worship Yahweh at place of His choosing: this recurs throughout code
-instead of being a window into values and organization of a society, represents a utopian society more than an actual one; offers a populist program for an Israel reconstituted according to idealized premonarchic period
-priestly tribe, named for Jacob's son Levi, whose primary responsibility was ritual
-Numbers 16: group of Levites led by Korah said entire ppl of Yahweh holy, so special status of Moses and Aaron unjustified; Yahweh sent fire in test and burned them up..status of Aaron reaffirmed
-3 excerpts from Deut. and Num. that are recited daily and, written on small scrolls, attached to body during prayer and to the door of a house
-expresses Deuteronomic and subsequent Jewish commitment to teaching of Moses
-herem: something prohibited
-something dedicated to a deity and restricted for the deity's use
-spoils of war, including captured ppl
-to be applied to all cities of land of Canaan
-motivation was to avoid risk of apostasy, b/c Israel always in danger of corrupting its worship of Yahweh with Canaanite practices
-also may have been a way to avoid contracting diseases carried by them
-rarely if ever carried out
Former Prophets
-1st division of the Prophets: Joshua, Judges, 1&2 Samuel, 1&2 Kings
Latter Prophets
-2nd part of Prophets: Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel
-book of the twelve (minor prophets)
-Israel's neighbors east of Jordan River
-"sons of Ammon" who, in Genesis 19, was offspring of Lot by daughter
-name preserved in Amman, Jordan
-ruler or military leader, as well as one who presided over legal hearings; premonarchic period or when there wasn't a king in Israel
-most likely on a local or tribal level, emerging with specific crises; most likely role of Joshua, then magnified by Deut. Historians
-depiction of judges not always one of unqualified approval: Ehud and Jael are one dimensional, but Samson and Gideon are complex, with good and bad qualities
-all succeed by using their wits to defeat an apparently stronger adversary
-Israel's neighbors east of Dead Sea
-"sons of Moab" who, according to Gen. 19, were offspring of Lot by daughter
-one group of Sea Peoples
-in 2nd millenium BCE, having failed to conquer Egyptians, settled on SE coast of Med. where they vied with Israel for control of Canaan
-Palestine derived from it
Sea Peoples
-coalition of ppl in 2nd millenium BCE moved from homeland in Aegean Sea through E. Med.