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159 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Who was the founder of Sikhism.
Nanak
Lifespan of Nanak
1469-1538
Deity
"The True Name" - Like Allah, Vishnu
Who was the fifth Guru, who compiled the Adi Granth
Arjan
Who was the tenth Guru, who founded the Khalsa.
Govind
Where was Nanak born?
Talwandi
What caste was Nanak?
Mercantile (However probably poor)
Governor of Talwandi, who liked Nanak's ideas.
Rai Bular
Nanak was said to have a vision from God, who told him that...
There is only one God, and there is no Muslim or Hindu.
What city did Sikhism flourish?
Punjab
Who was the successor of Nanak?
Angad
Hari
The Kindly, another name for the True Name
In Sikhism, Maya is like
A veil of matter, created by god to prevent those full of desire from seeing him.
This Sikh Guru began to transition to military power
Arjan (1581-1606)
Arjan compiled the
Adi Granth, the Sikh Bible
Arjan died by
He was arrested and tortured to death
Who succeeded Arjan?
Har Govind, his son
Har Govind created a Sikh
Army and stonghold
Who was the tenth and last Guru?
Govind Singh
Govind Sing compiled the
Dasam Granth
Govind Sing created the
Khalsa, "The Pure"
First sign of a Khalsa
Kesh, long hair
Second sight of a Khalsa
Kangha, comb
Third Sign of Khalsa
Kachh, short drawers
Fourth sign of a Khalsa
Kara, steel bracelet
Fifth sign of a Khalsa
Kirpan, Sword
Nanakpanthis
Followers of Nanak, who did not become Khalsas
Adi Granth
Primary collection of Sikh Scriptures, mostly hymns, assembled by the fifth Guru, Guru Arjan
Dasam Granth
The Granth of the Tenth Guru, Govind Singh's compilation of his own writings. Reassembled in several versions.
Govind Singh
Tenth and last Guru. Founder of the Khalsa order
Gurdwara
A Building for worship and hospitality, usually including a room for the Granth, hostel accomodations, and a community kitchen
Guru
One of the line of ten designated spiritual leaders.
Haumai
Egoism, self-centeredness. Threatens to ensnare human beings, separating them from the True Name
Japji
A prayer attibuted to Nanak. Used in daily devtional rites
Kabir
1440-1518; Poet follower of the Hindu reformer Ramananda, a monotheis precurser of Nanak
Nam-Marg
"The Path of the Name" Sikh self-reference to distinguish itself from Hindu Paths
Sangat
Congregation for worship and for setting the Sikh community policy
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Hindus use the term ___ to describe their religion
Dharma
The only general rule of Hinduism is to
Abide by the rules of the caste and trust that by doing so they will be freed from rebirth.
Year Muslims invaded India
1800-1500 BCE
Rajah
Chieften in the Indo-Aryan invaders tribes
Name the four Samhitas collections
Rig-Veda, Sama-Veda, Yajur-Veda, and the Atharva-Veda
What is the Rig-Veda
Veda of stanzas of praise. Ten books with over 1,000 hymns.
Aryans' Brahmin
Represented the Brahman
Brahman
Prayer - Central Sacred Petition of the Aryans. Wider meanings include "holy word", "sacred knowlege", and "incantation"
Mantras
Words and stanzas of the Rig-Veda
Yajur-Veda
Ment to supply dedications, prayers, and litanies to accompany the use of the Rig-Veda
Sama-Veda
Collection of Rythmic chants mainly for the use of the singing priests at soma sacrifices.
Atharava-Veda
A more indepedent book from the Rig-Veda. Charms, incantation, maledictions, spells, etc
Brahmans eventually claimed that they were even more powerful than
The gods, as the gods had to obey them
Brahmanas
Each of the four vedas had one of these attached to it, which directed priests in the use of hymns or prayers. Suggests that the Brahmins were prophets
When were the Brahmanas written
300 BCE
Two groups of sacrificial ceremonies on the Brahmanas
Domestic and Public
Asvamedha
The Horse Sacrifice. Took over a year to complete. 609 Animals were gathered and possibly sacrificed. Believed to redeem all sin.
Upanishads
Study of religions in India. Attached to the vedas. Expands on the vedas. Means "Sitting near a teacher." Likey not composed by Brahmins
Ascetics
Mediative thinkers, away from activity in the world toward inward thought and spirit
Moksha
Release. Emancipation from the world's illusion and pain
THe name for the ultimate reality, that beings are all one being
Brahman
Saguna Brahman
Lord God regnant who responds to human prayer
Atman
Innerself, spirit
Three mental states, according to Upanishadic thinkers
Waking consciousness, dreaming sleep, deep, dreamless sleep
Fourth stage of consciousness
Turiya. Transends all of the other three. Represents the purest of soul. Like Moksha
Cosmic Cycles
Kalpas. The World dissvolves after every Kalpa. All souls depart from their bodies into a state of suspende being.
Pralaya
After a period of this, the world comes back into being
Samsara
Sequence of change. Connected to reincarnation
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Karma
means deeds or works. Determines your future
Varna
Classes in the Caste system
Four Varna
Brahmins, Kshatriyas (Warriors), Vaisyas, (producers) Shudras (Servents)
Jatis
Subclasses within the above classes
Agni
The sacred fire. The ritual prist god of fire and light
Aryans
Semi-nomadic peoples who migrated from eater ERUO and ASIA to become ancestors of Greeks, Romans, etc.
Asvamedha
The ancient Aryan hourse sacrifice
Atharva-Veda
Brahmanic ritual poetry dedicated to certain needs. Healing sick, spells for lovers, etc
Brahma
The Creater. Member of the supreme triad
Brahman
In Vedic lit, a mana-like mgical potency. Sacred utterances, etc
Brahmanas
Commentaries on the Vedas stressing potency of Brahmanic ritual for control over gods, nature, and humankind
Brahman-Atman
A compound term to indicate the essential id of individual consciousness with the eternal Brahman
Brahmin
A member of the Brahmana or priestly class of castes. The hgighest group in the varna
Brihaspati
The power of prayer personified
Dasas
Indigenous inhabitants of NW India. Subdued by invading Aryans
Dravidians
A major racial and linguistic family of non-Aryan peoples most numerous in S India.
Henotheism
Flattering ritual attribution of supremem position and a vast array of powers to one of many gods, temporarily ignoring but not denying the existence of others
Indra
God of storms and monsoon. Slayer of Vritra in Rig-Veda
Jiva
The princple of vitality, the empirical self, or the embodied atman
Kalpa
A world age or aeon, a unit of the cycle of periodic dissolutions and reconstitutions of all things
Karma
"Deeds", "words", the principle of inexorable cause and effect
Kshatriya
The warrior-chieftain class of castes
Maya
The illusion-creating power of Brahman. Unlike delusional avidya (ignorance) of mortals.
Miksha
Release/liberation from the cycle of samsara
Monism
The metaphysical view that ultimate reality is made up of only one substance; diversity is only apparent and can be traced to one substrate
Prakriti
The eternal self-subsisting material world, nature
Purusha
The original cosmic person; pure consciousness, the nonmaterial, coeternal counterpart to prakriti
Rig-Veda
Collection of over 1,000 hymns the liturgical handbook of early Aryan preits,
Rudra
Mountain god of north wind. Sometimes destryer, sometimes healther. Later worshiped as Shiva
Shruti
"That which is heard". The most sacred core of Brahmanic literature
Shudra
Worker class of castes, fourth and lowest ranking in the varna social order
Smirti
"That which is remembered" Secondary level of sacred writings that derive from revlation but are composed by human authros
Soma
Sacred drink.
Tapas
Heat. inner fire in an ascetic's heart.
Upanishads
"Sitting near a teacher". Commentary treatises expanding on the philosophical meanings found in the vedas
Ushas
White-robed goddess of down; eternally young, she rides a chariot driven by her male attendants, the twin Asvins
Vaisya
The merchant, artisan, and small landholder class of castes, third in the varna order
Varuna
Keeper of the natural moral order
Vedanta
Commentary on the vedas.
Yoga
Mentioned in the upanishads. Overcoming bondage
Guru
A spiritual guide/teacher
puja
Worship of god/goddess
Dharma
Duty or moral law. Sometimes a generic term for religious thought and practice
Four permissible life goals for Brahmins
Kama (Pleasure - often via love), Artha (Power and subtance. Material possesstions), Dharma (faithful, duty to moral law), Moksha (Release/liberation)
Code of Manu
Rules for castes. Lays stress on rites of passage
Dharmasatras
Spells out rules of castes, like The Code of Manu
Nirvana
Means extinction. Liberated condtion
Three ways to salvation
Way of works, knowledge, and devotion
Marga
"Path" -Way
Yoga means
Discipline
Karma Marga
The Way of Works
Shraddha
Rites following death and for ancestral spirits. Found in the code of manu. For Karma marga
Pinda
food balls. Supposed to provide dead with a "new body". Example of the Shraddha
Way of Works for Women
Obey men, serve men meekly, household duties, and becoming a sati.
Sati
Women who sacrifieces herself in fire as an act of devotion. Uppoer-caste literature. Illegal. For Karma Marga
Jnana Marga
The Way of Knowledge. Based on the thinking in the Upanishads
The premise of reflective Hinduism, The Way of Knowledge, is that
Human misery and evil is ignorance (Avidya). The root of human misery is mental error, not moral transgression
Best known viewpoint of Reflective Hinduism
Monism.
Monism believes
The evil of the human condition lies in the fact that we think we are separate, even though individuals' atman are at one with the Brahman.
Ashramas
The four stages in life, according to the reflective mode of hinduism
Name the Ashramas
The student, the married man/householder, the forest hermit, the mendicant/holy wanderer
What happens in the student stage
Learn about duties of caste, religious awakening, study of the vedas
What happens in the householder stage
Marriage, children
What happens in the hermit stage?
Retire to forest.
What happens in the Sannyasin?
Final stage. Homeless wanderer.
Maya
Ignorance
Six systems of the reflextive hinduism
-Sankhya, Yoga, Nyaya, Vaisheshika, Vedanta, and Mimansa
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Bhakti Marga
Way of devotion
Text for Bhakti Marga
Bhagavad Gita
Contains the Bhagavad Gita
Mahabharata
The Bhagavad Gita Tells about
Arjuna, warrior. does't want to go to war b/c will be fighting and killing family. Krishna appears. Says it's caste duty, and that no one dies in battle and then turns into Vishnu and says that the path to salvation and liberation is he.
Ramayana
Epic of the struggles of Rama and co. rescuing sita from demon Ravana. Devotional Hindu
Puranas
Popular epics. Stories about ceratin sects' gods and sages
Trimurti
The Triad of Gods. Made up of Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva.
What are the niche's for Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva
Creation, preservation, destruction
Shiva
destruction. Male/female
Vishnu
Preserver. Four arms, two hands
Spouse of Vishnu
Lakshmi
Genesha
Elephant-headed son of Shiva. Worshiped for great undertakings
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