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77 Cards in this Set

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What is the meaning of Israelite?
God's chosen people. Hebrew people who inhabited the ancient kingdom of Israel. Decendent of Jacob.
What is the meaning of Jew?
A person of the ancient kingdom of Judah
What is the meaning of Hebrew?
Decent of Abraham, Jacob, and Isaac. Israelite.
About how many Judaism believers are there?
about 14 million
Is there a real founder in Judaism?
No
What is the Tanak?
*3 books
*Torah, Nevi'im, Kethuvim
*it is both oral and written
Torah
*Laws of Moses
*teaching
*historical narrative
*ethics of justice
*books of moses
Nevi'im
prophets
Kethuvim
*writings
*proverbs
*song lyrics
*poetry
Who was Adam?
*the first man
*was expelled from paradise
Who was Eve?
*the first woman
*reason for expulsion from paradise
Who was Noah?
*the great flood
*built ark
*God would would never destro the earth by flood again
Who were the Patriarchs?
Abraham
Isaac
Jacob
12 Sons of Israel
Who was Abraham?
*God called onto him
*made a covenant with God
*was challenge by having to kill his son Isaac
What is the day of rest for Jewish believers?
from sunset friday to sunset saturday
Isaac
*Father of Jacob
*was sacrificed by his father Abraham
*he had a miraculous birth
Who was Jacob?
*he had 12 sons who becames slaves of Egypt
*he and sons had to flee to Egypt to escape famine
What did the covenant with Abraham consist of?
*all of his sons and their decendents must be circumcised
*worship only one God
Priests
A person having the authority to perform and administer religious rites
Who is Moses? 1500-1280 BCE
*he liberated God's people (hebrews)
Exodus of Egypt
"going away from Egypt"
God sent ten plagues to egypt so they would free his people
What is Passover (Pesach)
*last plague
*killed the first born sons of egyptians
*an annual jewish celebration of hebrews
Mount Sinai
*Where the Torah was recepted
*10 commandments
10 commandments
*part of the Torah
*specific do's and dont's
*in the Arch of the Covenant
Philistines
*seafairing enemy that threatened Israel
*realized they needed a strong monarch
*they were armed with iron weapons
What is Joshua's view of the Hebrew invasion of Canaan?
it was very dramatic and happened very sudden
What is Judges' view of the Hebrew invasion of Canaan?
gradual
it is supported by archaelogical evidence
Who was Saul?
The first king of Israel
Who was David?
*dominated much of Syria-Palestine
*made Jerusalem political and capital city
Who was Soloman?
*he built the first temple in Jerusalem
*literacy activity flourished during his order
Soloman's Temple
*did not contain a divine image
*priests talked with God on behalf of the people
*offerings were made to God
What were the two kingdoms that formed after Soloman's Death? 10th c. BCE
Israel of the North
Judah of the South
922 BCE
Who destroyed the kingdom of Israel?
Assyrians in 722 BCE
What is a Prophet (nevi)?
*receive messages from god
*the messages are about what he does and about the future
Who destroyed the 1st temple?
*Nebuchadnezzar II in 586 BCE
*Babylon
What were the consequences of the Babylonian exhile in 586 BCE?
The people lost their independence, King, temple, and land
What were the effects of the Babylon exhile?
*babylon became the center of jewish life
*Temple ritual was deemphasized
*The written word became more important
*the hebrew language was replace by Aramaic
Who was Cyrus?
*conquered babylon
*allowed jews to return to their homeland in 6 c. BCE
*jews were allowed to rebuild soloman's temple
Diaspora
babylon became a center for jewish life
despersion of jews
Septuagint
*greek version of the hebrew bible
*translated during the time of Alexander the Great
When did the Romans take over?
63 BCE
Sadducees
*a priestly faction
Essenes
a reclusive semimonastic Jewish group that flourished from 150 BCE-68CE
Pharisees
a faction during the second temple time that emphasized the observation of biblical rules
Zealots
*anti roman
*active during roman rule
Destruction of the second temple (70CE_
*ended power of priesthood
*emphasized scriture interpretation
*power went to Rabbis
What is a Rabbi?
*a religious teacher
*given power after the second temple was destroyed
Rabbinic Judaism
afte the destruction of the second temple
Synagogue
jewish house of worship
religious gathering
Midrash
search
rabbinical commetary on the scriptures and oral law
talmud
Mishna + Gamara = Talmud
There are two of them
What is the most complete Talmud?
The babylonian Talmud 600 CE
Ashkenaz
broad term for central european jews
Sepharad
jews of spain, morocco, and mediterranean region
Kabbalah
"recieved" "handed down"
the whole body of mystical literature in judaism
Zohar
"Book of Slendor"
ca. 1300
central work of Kabbalah
contain the theory of redemption
Hasidism
*emphasized meditative prayer
*Founder was Israel ben Eliezer
Who was Israel ben Eliezer 18c.
*founder of hasidism
*known as Besht (master of the good name)
Tzaddik
riteous one
Haskalah Movement
18c. CE
enlightenment
Orthodox Judaism
most traditional
Concervative Judaism
attempts to blend the new and old
Reform Judaism
*questioned and modernized judaism
*liberal
Zionism
*founder was Theodor Herzl
*19c. CE
*called for a separate jewish state
*rejected accommodation/assimilaiton
What was the Holocaust?
A state sponser program that tried to radicate all jews
What are the rites of passage?
circumcision
bar mitzvah
Kosher Diet
*Ritually correct
*rule are in talmud
*acceptable manner of consumption
Rosh Hashanah
new year
in september or october
yom kippur
day of atonement
10 days after rosh hashanah
prayers for forgiveness and reconciliation
Bar Mitzvah
the coming-of-age ceremony that marks the time when a young person is considered a legal adult within the Jewish community
Hanukkah
an early winter festival recalling the rededication of the second temple, celebrated with the lighting of candles for eight days
Purim
a joyous festival in early spring that recalls the jews' eing saved from destruction, as told int he book of esther
seder
"order"
a special ritual meal at passover, recalling the hebrews' exodus from egypt
sukkkot
"booths"
a festival int he late autumn that recalls the jews' perod of wandering in the desert after their exodus from egypt
talit
a prayer shawl worn by devout males
tefillin
two small boxes containing biblical passages that are worn by orhtodox male on the their head and left arm at morning prayer during the week
yarmulke
the skullcap worn by devout males