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51 Cards in this Set

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Hexokinase
Activated:
Inhibited: Glucose-6-phosphate
Glucokinase
Activated: Insulin, Fructose-1-Phosphate
Inhibited: Fructose-6-phosphate
6-Phosphofructokinase-1
MAIN REG Enzyme
Activated: LOW ATP/AMP ratio, fructose-2,6-biphosphate (if insulin/glucagon ratio is UP)
Insulin
Inhibited: HIGH ATP/AMP ratio,
citrate, acidic pH
Pyruvate kinase
Activated: Insulin, fructose-1,6-biphosphate
Inhibited: Glucagon via phosphorylation
Where does glycolysis occur?
cytoplasm
where does gluconeogenesis occur
mitochondria, ER and cytoplasm
Where is Glucose-6-phosphatase found
ER of LIVER
Hormones that influence all three enzymes
ACTIVATE: cortisol, glucagon, catecholamines
Inhibit: Insulin
pyruvate carboxylase
Activated: aCoA from oxidation of FA= source of ATP
Inhibited:
Fructose-1,6-biphosphatase
Activated: citrate, starvation
Inhibited: AMP, Fru-2,6-bisP (HIGH insulin/glucagon)
glucose-6-phosphatase
in ER, liver, kidneys and enterocytes
Glycogen synthase
(glycogen making)
exists in 2 forms
Activated a: NON phosphorylated
Inhibited b: Phosphorylated
hormones that affect glycogen synthase and how
At muscle: insulin does dephosphorylation
epinephrine does phosphorylation

At liver: activated by Glc
glucagon does phosphorylation
glycogen phosphorylase
(glycogen degradation)
2 forms
active a: phosphorylated
inactive b: nonphosphorylated
phosphorylation of glycogen phosphorylase is catalyse by phosphorylase kinase
hormones that affect glycogen phosphorylase
activation: glucagon and epinephrine
inactivation: insulin
allosteric effectors of glycogen phosphorylase
Activated: AMP, Ca 2+ muscle
Inhibited: ATP, Glc-6-p, free Glc
transkeletose
transfers C2 from one sugar to another
transaldose
transfers c3 units from sedo-heptulose-7-phosphate to the aldehyde group of Gra-3-P
3 Ribose 5 phosphates make
2 fructose 6 phosphates and 1 glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate
OXIDATIVE , what is main regulatory enzyme
Glc-6-P dehydrogenase which is regulated by NADPH/NADP conc
regulation of pentose phosphate cycle is?
one the level of substrate availability.
uncoupling protein is?
compound that allows protons to flow through the inner mitochondrial membrane from the intermembrane space, thus not producing ATP
UCP-1
Thermogenin, brown fat
UCP-2
White fat
UCP-3
Skeletal muscle
UCP-4,5
brain, hibernating animals
substrate level phosphorylation is?
independent of O2
how does it workL
cleavage of an energy rich compound (=coupling of the ATP synthesis with an exergonic reaction)
examples of substrate level phosphorylation
formation of GTP in the citrate cycle, AND ATP synthesis in reactions of glycolysis.
CAC has pathways of oxidation for?
saccharides, lipids and protens
CAC plays a key role in the following metabolic reactions?
gluconeogenesis, transaminations, deaminations, lipogenesis
CAC is (-bolic)?
amphibolic
meaning it has catabolic and anabolic processes
Strongly exergonic reactions of CAC
citrate synthase,
isocitrate dehydrogenase
alpha ketoglutarate dehydrogenase
Products of CAC
2 CO2, 3 NADH+H+'s, 1 GTP, 1 FADH2, 1 CoASH
degradation of most amino acids give
oxaloacetate, a-ketoglutarate and fumarate
most important anaplerotic reaction
pyruvate carboxylase
CAC has pathways of oxidation for?
saccharides, lipids and protens
regulation of citrate synthase
Activation:
Inhibition: HIGH NADH/NAD+
Succinyl-CoA
CAC plays a key role in the following metabolic reactions?
gluconeogenesis, transaminations, deaminations, lipogenesis
regulation of isocitrate dehydrogenase
Activation: Low ATP/ADP
Inhibition: HIGH NADH/NAD+
HIGH ATP/ADP
CAC is (-bolic)?
amphibolic
meaning it has catabolic and anabolic processes
regulation of alphaketoglutarate dehydrogenase
Activation: Ca2+
Inhibition: HIGH NADH/NAD+,
HIGH ATP/ADP,
GTP.
succinyl CoA
Strongly exergonic reactions of CAC
citrate synthase,
isocitrate dehydrogenase
alpha ketoglutarate dehydrogenase
Products of CAC
2 CO2, 3 NADH+H+'s, 1 GTP, 1 FADH2, 1 CoASH
degradation of most amino acids give
oxaloacetate, a-ketoglutarate and fumarate
most important anaplerotic reaction
pyruvate carboxylase
regulation of citrate synthase
Activation:
Inhibition: HIGH NADH/NAD+
Succinyl-CoA
regulation of isocitrate dehydrogenase
Activation: Low ATP/ADP
Inhibition: HIGH NADH/NAD+
HIGH ATP/ADP
regulation of alphaketoglutarate dehydrogenase
Activation: Ca2+
Inhibition: HIGH NADH/NAD+,
HIGH ATP/ADP,
GTP.
succinyl CoA
regulation of cAMP independent PDH Kinase
allosteric activator: ATP, aCoA, NADH
inhibitor: Pyruvate
regulation of PDH phosphorylase
Activator: Ca2+ in muscles