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14 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Recovery of function in the nervous system is generally due to regeneration of tissue.
False: recovery of function int the nervous system is rarely associated with regeneration of tissues.
What are the three basic requirements for successful regeneration of neural tissue?
1.Replacement of lost neurons
2.Growth of axons
3.Specificity of connections
Is the ability to regenerate optic nerve and retinal neurons a selective advantage for frogs?
No - this is a developmental advantage that allows the frog's eye to grow in proportion to its body.
What neural cells have been shown to regenerate constitutively in mammals? In what part of the nervous system are these cells found?
Granule cells found in the olfactory bulb and dentate nucleus of the hippocampal gyrus.
What effect did being in an enriched environment have on the number of granule cells in the hippocampuses of experimental mice?
The number of granule cells increased, but this effect was due to decreased turnover rather than increased proliferation.
How is hippocampal size related to depression? What effect do SSRI's have on this relationship?
Depression is correlated with smaller hippocampal size. Treatment with SSRI's is correlated with an increase in hippocampal size due to increased granule cell proliferation.
Describe the results that were obtained when rats with induced PD were treated with stem cell transplants.
There was some differentiation into dopaminergic cells, with 50% showing alleviation of symptoms. However, 25% developed non-metastasizing tumors.
What is thought to prevent regeneration of axons in the CNS?
Oligodendrocytes express compounds (e.g. Nogo-A) that prevent the regrowth.
What is the normal function of Nogo-A?
It is expressed by oligodendrocytes during development to prevent aberrant or excessive axonal growth.
What techniques can improve (but not perfect) axonal growth in the CNS?
*application of antibodies against Nogo-A
*use of PNS grafts
Give an explanation for the success of physical therapy that does not involve undamaged areas "taking over" the function of damaged areas.
It is possible that the person is simply learning a new task (albeit one with the same goal) that involves different areas of the brain.
Why might children have better plasticity following a CNS injury and regain more function than adults?
Because the localization of function in their nervous system has not yet become fixed by experience.
How is CNS plasticity in children demonstrated with repair of a brachial avulsion?
An intercostal nerve is inserted into the distal end of the musculocutaneous nerve and eventually is able to provide appropriate innervation to the arm muscles.
What is meant by "compromised neurons"?
Neurons in the area surrounding immediate damage that are not killed, but temporarily lose function due to inflammation, edema, and compromised blood flow.