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83 Cards in this Set

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helped develop multiple printing with movable metal type; Gutenberg's Bible 1445 or 46: first true book in the West produced from movable type
Johannes Gutenberg (1400-68)
humans have the ability to reason and improve themselves, focused on education of Christian antiquity to instill a true inner piety or an inward religious feeling that would bring about the reform of the church and society, humanists supported schools, brought out new editions of classics, and made new editions of Bible and writings of the church fathers
Christian Humanism
most influential of all Christian humanists, formulated/popularized reform program of Christian humanism, "Christianity should be a guiding philosophy for the direction of daily life rather than the system of dogmatic beliefs and medieval church seemed to stress," 1. Spread and understanding of Jesus 2. Provided enlightened education in the sources of early Christianity 3. Criticized the church
Desideratum Erasmus (1466-1536)
German monk and writer, author of the Imitation of Christ, original name = Thomas Hemerken, born Prussia, educated in Netherlands, entered the Augustinian monastery of Mount Saint Agnes in Netherlands, ordained priest, copied manuscripts and counseled, Thomas's writings represent the modern devotion- a movement of spiritual reform centered in the Netherlands that stressed the moral example of Christ
Thomas à Kempis (1380-1471)
a devotional treatise that became immensely influential, written by Thomas à Kempis
Imitation of Christ
the remission before God of the temporal punishment due for sins already forgiven as far as their guilt is concerned." The first thing to note is that forgiveness of a sin is separate from punishment for the sin. Through sacramental confession we obtain forgiveness, but we aren't let off the hook as far as punishment goes
a deliberate intention of buying or selling for a temporal price such things as are spiritual of annexed unto spirituals
high church-officials taking more than one church office so they could gin some of the much-needed wealth of the land
the hiring of only family members to church offices
a patron of Renaissance culture and the Catholic leader who laughed in the Protestant people’s faces when they asserted their demands. He excommunicated Martin Luther for his extremely radical new ideas about religion and God
Pope Leo X
Salvation is formed by salvation alone, scriptures alone, and grace alone
Sola: Scriptura, Fide, Gratia
Convened by young Charles V, Martin Luther was
expected to recant his "heretical doctrines," but Luther refused and made an
outlaw in the Holy Roman Empire
Diet of Worms (1521)
one of the ideas of the supreme sovereignty of God; God has
already decided who will go to heaven (the elect) and who will be damned
(the reprobate)
the Lord's Supper (bread and wine) literally becomes
the body and blood of Christ by a miracle performed by the priest
German monk upset by Catholic Church practices
and doctrines; wrote "The 95 Theses" and other treatises criticizing the
Church; he was excommunicated by the Catholic Church in 1521, and began
setting up his reformed church in Germany, where it quickly spread
Martin Luther (1483-1546)
A book written by John Calvin on the Protestant thoughts; this helped him become one of the prominent leaders of the Protestant Reformation
Institution of Christian Religion (1536)
written by Martin Luther calling for the German princes to overthrow the papacy in Germany and form a new church
Address to the Nobility of the German Nation (1520)
(Appeal to Christian Nobility of the German Nation)
Peasants weren't able to enjoy the economic improvement, but instead local lords continued to abuse them by imposing more taxes and other services. Thomas Muntzer also encouraged others to "strike while the iron is hot!" During the revolt, however, Luther was interested in supporting the peasants, but instead supported the German Princes
German Peasants Revolt
During the Council of Trent, the seven sacraments (the original Catholic beliefs of: baptism, reconciliation/penance/confession, holy Eucharist, confirmation, matrimony, holy orders, and extreme unction) was reinforced
Seven sacraments
an unruly Dominican who hawked the indulgences of the Catholic priests in Germany with the famous slogan, "As soon as the coin in the coffer rings, the soul from Purgatory springs." Caused Luther to write his 95 Theses against indulgences.
Johann Tetzel (1465-1519)
began the Reformation in Switzerland when he was ordained a priest in and sent to Zurich in 1518. Influenced evangelical reforms that were made in Zurich by city council; started the Zwinglian form of Protestantism, abolished relics, images, paintings and decorations in churches, music, monasticism, pilgrimages, veneration of saints, clerical celibacy, and pope's authority ... was very strict/radical form; participated in the Marburg Colloquy, believed that "body and blood" of Jesus should be taken figuratively, not literally (which Luther believed); died October 1531 in the Swiss Civil War
Ulrich Zwingli (1484-1531)
1529 debate between Martin Luther and Ulrich Zwingli over the sacrament of the Lord's Supper; Luther believed that Jesus' body and blood were present in a sense along with the bread and wine (consubstantiation); Zwingli believed that the body and blood of Jesus should be taken figuratively, they were just a symbol of the body and blood. The Marburg Colloquy failed to reach an agreement.
Marburg Colloquy
son of a lawyer, deeply devout Christian humanist and lord
Chancellor of King Henry VIII of England; challenged the new Act of Supremacy which stated that the King now has power and authority over the Pope in Rome and over the state; resigned as lord chancellor because of his refusal to honor the King's authority over the Pope, put on trial for treason and beheaded in London on July 6, 1535. Also wrote the book Utopia which described a perfect world full of cooperation, reason, communal ownership rather than private property, etc.; was a moral world in which social relations, recreation and travel were controlled for the welfare of society
Thomas More (1478-1535)
English King who divorced his wife, Catherine of Aragon because she wouldn’t produce a male heir. He then married Catherine’s lady in waiting, Anne Boleyn and she gets pregnant with a girl, Elizabeth. He finally gets a male heir at one point and beheads Thomas More for not saying the oath.
Henry VIII (1509-1547)
He becomes the Kings principal secretary after Wolsey. He ends up being one of the King’s financial rescues.
Thomas Cromwell: (1485-1540)
It was the complete breaking of the Church of England from Rome. It stated that the English monarchs had control of the Church.
Act of Supremacy (1534):
The Anglican Church is many just the Church of England. It was Roman Catholic and during the reformation, they tried to blot out the starting of the Lutherans, Presbyterians, and the Calvinists. Example: Council of Trent where they discussed the problems with the “radicalists”.
Anglican Church
in his Institutes of the Christian Religion, Calvin diverged from Catholic doctrine in the rejection of papal authority and in acceptance of justification by faith alone, but many of his other positions, including the fundamental doctrine of predestination, had been foreshadowed by Catholic reformers and by the Protestant thought of Martin Luther and Martin Bucer.
John Calvin (1509-64)-
John Calvin’s established ministry in Genoa. The consistory, a special body for enforcing moral discipline, was set up as a court to oversee the moral life and doctrinal purity of Genevans. Punishments ranged from “fraternal corrections” to the usage of public penance, excommunication, banishment, and public whippings
Genevan Consistory
became well-known for his ability in dissection and had unusual success as a physician; he discovered that some of the blood circulates through the lungs. When (1553) he had a work setting forth his ideas of Christianity secretly printed, investigation was begun by the Inquisition. Servetus, arrested, tried, and condemned, escaped from prison
Michael Servetus
Calvin’s new church constitution that created a church government that used both clergy and laymen in the service of the church. Genoa accepted it in 1541.
Ecclesiastical Ordinances
very radical religious reform group believed that everybody was their own priest, practiced adult baptism, and believed in complete separation of church and state
Holy Roman Emperor, believed in the church and state being united, took over control of the church in his country, basically made the Pope a religious figure with no authority
Charles V
Family of German financiers who exerted great economic and political influence in the 15th and 16th centuries. Founded by Johannes (1348-1409), the family business was greatly expanded by his son Jakob (died 1469).
Religious reformer and Anabaptist, he studied theology, and in 1520 began to preach at Zwickau. His socialism and mystical doctrines soon brought him into collision with the authorities. After preaching widely, in 1525 he was elected pastor of the Anabaptists at Mülhausen, where his communistic ideas soon aroused the whole country. He joined the Peasants' Revolt (1524--5), but was defeated at Frankenhausen, and executed a few days later
The French Valois king who was a political rival
of Charles V. They fought over the disputed territories of the Habsburg
Empire, which consisted of Italy, Northern Spain, the Rhineland, the
Netherlands, and Northern France. This led to the Habsburg-Valois Wars
, which spanned 24 years from 1521 to 1544. These wars diverted Charles
V's attention from the spread of Lutheranism throughout the Holy Roman
Francis I (1515-1556)
The sultan of the Ottoman Empire
who was the successor to Selim I. He was called the Magnificent due to
his abilities at ruling and gaining land for the Ottoman Turks. He was
Charles V's, the Holy Roman Emperor, greatest enemy. Suleiman captured
Belgrade in 1521 and Rhodes in 1522 and he killed Charles's
brother-in-law, King Louis of Hungary, at the battle of Mohacs in 1526.
The farthest Suleiman went in Europe was to Vienna, Switzerland and was
stopped by Charles V in 1529.
Suleiman the Magnificent (1520-1566)
The war between the Protestant forces and Charles V
in Germany that went from 1546 to 1547. Charles soundly defeated the
Lutherans at the Battle of Muhlburg, but the Lutherans were down and not
out. This soon led to the alliance of the Lutheran's with German princes
and the French king Henry II. This newly established force defeated
Charles, which led to his abdication of his throne and titles. This war
was ended in 1555 in the Peace of Augsburg
Schmalkaldic Wars
The wars between political rivals Charles V and
Francis I of France, which went from 1521 to 1544. In the second war, the
pope Clement VII joined France's side, but in 1527 Charles V's army
ravaged Rome in a very bloody manner. This led to the transferal of
Italy over to Charles V's hands in 1530. These wars were eventually
ended in 1544
Habsburg-Valois Wars
an end to religious warfare in Germany; division of Christianity acknowledged, Lutheranism granted equal legal standing with Catholicism. In addition, rulers had the right to determine the religion of their subjects
Peace of Augsburg (1555)
Founded the Society of Jesus (Jesuits), vowed to be a "soldier of God."
St. Ignatius Loyola (1491-1556)
Founded a new order of barefoot Carmelite nuns, working primarily with mysticism. Through this the Capuchins emerged, caring for the sick and poor and fighting Protestantism.
Teresa of Avila (1515-1582)
Founded by St. Ignatius Loyola, this organization was strictly Catholic and grounded on absolute obedience to the Pope. The Jesuits built highly disciplined schools, propagated the Catholic faith among non-Christians (esp. oversees), and were determined to fight Protestantism.
Society of Jesus (Jesuits)
they emerged when a group of Franciscans decided to return to the simplistic way of life. They focused on preaching of the Gospel directly to
the people and were an effective force against Protestantism.
they placed their emphasis on reforming the secular clergy and
encouraging those clerics to fulfill their duties among the laity.
an order of nuns started by Saint Teresa of Avila, who had a
mystical experience. They worked to foster more mystical experiences.
one of the original members of the Society of
Jesus. He carried the message of Catholic Christianity to the East
ministering to India and Japan
Francis Xavier- (1506-1552)
Pope Paul III called it. Scriptures and tradition were
affirmed as equal authorities in religious matters, and both faith and good
works were declared needed for salvation. The seven sacraments were held
the same, as was celibacy of the clergy. Indulgences were prohibited. The
Council made hopes of reuniting with the Protestants near impossible.
Council of Trent
This was a list of forbidden books to Catholics. These books
consisted works of Protestant theologians and other unholy authors. Erasmus
was included in these books.
The Index
Jesuit in China
Matteo Ricci
French Calvinists, came from all levels of society
The Huguenots were massacred in a battle of
a civil war that erupted after Henry II died
St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
acknowledged Catholicism as the official religion of
France but guaranteed the Huguenots the right to worship in selected places
in every district and allowed them to retain a number of fortified towns for
their protection
Edict of Nantes
the regent for her sons in France that looked to religious compromise as a way to defuse the political tensions but found to her consternation that both sides possessed their share of religious fanatics unwilling to make concessions. She was moderately Catholic
Catherine de Medici (1560-89)
the wars erupted when the powerful duke of Guise massacred a peaceful congregation of Huguenots at Vassy. They persuaded the French Medicis to help them to eliminate the Huguenots leader
Henry of Navarre, the acknowledged political leader of the Huguenots and were slaughtered at this leader’s wedding
Bourbons, Henry IV (1589-1610)
queen who’s reign brought prominence for England as the relatively small kingdom became the leader of the Protestant nations of Europe, laid the foundations for a world empire, and experienced a cultural resistance
Elizabeth I (1558-1603)
Die-hard catholic who persecuted Protestants. She burned more than 300 protestant heretics during her reign as Bloody Mary
Mary Tudor
Act passed by Queen Elizabeth that restored church service to the Book of Common Prayer. She revised it a bit to please Catholics
Act of Uniformity
a group of people formed during the French religion wars. They placed full emphasis on politics being more important religion and believed that religious beliefs were not worth the deaths caused by a war
during the French religion wars, disputes over rulers, codes of law, and religions nearly destroyed the country. Afterwards it was felt that France needed one king, one faith, and one law to unite the country
"One king, one faith, one law"
This state came into being when the northern Netherlands formally deposed their lord Philip II of Spain and decided to govern themselves, and lasted until French revolutionary forces invaded in 1795 and set up a new republic, called the Batavian Republic and later the Kingdom of Holland
United Provinces
Declaration by which the northern and southern provinces of the Low Countries put aside their religious differences and united in revolt against the Spanish Habsburgs. As the first major expression of national consciousness in The Netherlands, it ends the persecution of Calvinists. The Spanish governor soon resumed hostilities, however, and religious differences within the region caused a split in 1579 between the Calvinist north (the Union of Utrecht) and the Catholic south (the Union of Arras)
Pacification of ghent
ended the war, birtually recognizing the independence of the northern provinces
Twelve Years Truce
Philip ascended the Spanish throne on the abdication of his father, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. Philip married Queen Mary I of England. His relations with the papacy were generally bad, because most of the popes feared Spanish power in Italy. Religious persecution and the Spanish Inquisition were used to eliminate resistance to Philip's policy of centralizing power under an absolute monarchy. The repression of the Morocco, especially after the revolt, assured Spanish religious unity
Philip II (1555-98)
King Phillip II of Spain attempted to invade and conquer England to convert the Protestants back to Christianity, as well as to stop the English aid of the rebellion in the Netherlands. The plan was for a 2-pronged attack of a 125-ship armada from the south and the Duke of Parma from the North. Under the command of the Duke of Medina, the plan failed miserably, with the ships ending up going around Scotland and back to Spain after being demolished by the English and the weather
Spanish Armada
Spanish Military leader that lead an army against the Dutch Revolt. He was successful in the crushing the early revolt, but failed to stop further revolting despite use of terror tactics. Many Dutch Protestant provinces gained independence from Spain
Duke of Alba (1507-82)
Dutch pirates that helped fight the rebellion in the Netherlands against Spain, fought under William of Orange
Sea beggars
Commander of Dutch Protestant forces against Phillip II and Spain, demanded Spain withdraws from the Netherlands. Also known as William the Silent.
William of Orange
King of Sweden during the 30 Years War, responisble for reviving Sweden and making it into a great Baltic power. He was a military genius, brought a well eqiupped and disciplined army to n. Germany. Adolphus was a devout Lutheran who felt compelled to aid the others who believed in Lutheranism in Germany. He was killed in the Battle of Lutzen (1632) and after he died the Swedish forces were much less effective then they during Adolphus' reign
Gustavus Adolphus (1611-1632)
IN 1617, the Bohemian Estates accepted the Habsburg Archduke Ferdinand as their king but were soon unhappy with their choice. Ferdinand began re-Catholicizing Bohemia, and in May of 1618 the Protestant nobles rebelled against Ferdinand and proclaimed their resistance by throwing 2 of the Habsburg governors and a secretary out of the window of the royal castle in Prague. The Catholic side said that their escape from death was due to the intercession of the Virgin Mary, Protestants pointed out that they fell in a manure pile. The Bohemian rebels seized control of Bohemia, desposed Ferdinand, and elected Elecotr Frederick V to be the Protestand ruler of the Palatinate
Defenestration of Prague (1618)
this ensured that all German estates were free to determine their own religion. France gained parts of W. Germany, and Metz, Toul, and Verdun. Swedish and German states of Brandenburg ang Bavaria gained territory in Germany, and the Austrian Habsburgs didn' lose territory but their authority in Germany diminished. It was also made clear that religion and politicxs were now seperate worlds. pope was ignored in all of the decisons and Westphalia
Treaty of Westphalia (1648)
During the Thirty Years War the imperial forces laid siege to Magdeburg in 1630. On May 20, 1631, the imperial troops stormed the city . Fires mysteriously broke out in various quarters, and by the following day virtually the entire city had burned down. About 25,000 people died in the sacking. The sack of Magdeburg cuase the Protestant princes to conclude a closer alliance. The city was rebuilt was rebuilt after the Peace of Westphalia
Sack of Magdeburg (1631)
This was a treaty signed at the end of the war which guaranteed the German people free will to determine there own religion. It also gave out land from the war to France, Sweden and Germany mainly. Then the treaty showed that politics and religion were two separate worlds
Treaty of Westphalia
Was a war fought between 1618 and 1648, this war engulfed almost all of Europe even though it was mainly fought on the Germanic Holy Roman Empire lands. It was a religious war and was known as the last great religious war. Mainly between the Calvinists and Catholics. Also what may have been a greater cause for this war though were the feelings of dynastic-nationalism. There were 4 main phases these included, the Bohemian phase, the Danish phase, the Swedish phase and the Franco-Swedish phase
Thirty Years War
New artistic movement, it was a revival of religious values in art, artists were now distorting and elongating objects in their paintings. Mannerism reflected the environment of the worldly enthusiasm of the Renaissance and how it gave way too much spiritual anxiety, uncertainty and a yearning for spiritual experience
Mannerism was eventually replaced by baroque. Baroque artists sought to bring together the classical ideas of the Renaissance art and the spiritual feelings of the 16th century religious revival. Baroque style was known for its use of dramatic effect to arouse the emotions
painted in churches in Rome. His paintings expressed intensely horrific feelings (the bodies were stretched and dark while the background was looming and ominous
El Greco (1541-1614)
often referred to as the "Prince of Baroque" painters because he was the ultimate master in "pure" landscape and also a humanist and classical archaeologist
Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640)
an Italian architect and sculptor who created saint Peter's Basilica at the Vatican
Gian Lorenzo Bernini (1598-1680)
His essays which range over a wide variety of topics, are characterized as lively and involving many quotations from the classics, proven his knowledge. In 1571 he inherited his family’s estate and spent much of his time there. During this time he wrote such essays as Essais and also served mayor of Bordeaux. Montaigne is most recognized for his look into institutions, opinions, and customs and for his opposing stance against all forms of dogmatism that have no rational basis
Michel de Montaigne (1533-1592)
“Complete man of the theatre.” Although best known for writing plays, he was also an actor and a shareholder in the Lord Chamberlain’s Company. He was a master of the English language and understanding of human emotional conditions. He was able to strike his audience and their hearts through his comprehension
William Shakespeare (1564-1616)
Considered by many to be the greatest Spanish author, that was mostly due to the novel Don Quixote (Part I, 1605; Part II, 1615) that is regarded as one of the masterpieces of world literature. He was captured in Algeria after serving in the military and eventually returned to Spain where he took on government jobs because his writings did not pay enough to live off of
Miguel de Cervantes (1547-1616)