Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/166

Click to flip

166 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
66 Three main parties of the Church of England by the 19th century
Broad Church, Low Church, High Church
66 “High Church” also called
Anglo-Catholicism, “The Oxford Movement”, and the Tractarians
66 “The Oxford Movement” also called
Anglo-Catholicism, “High Church”, and the Tractarians
66 The Oxford Movement began
in the first half of the 19th century
66 Published “Tracts for the Times”
The Oxford Movement or Tractarians, high church branch of the 19th century Church of England
66 Aspect of the High Church
yearning for tradition, beauty, and mystery in worship – incense, vestments, candles, etc. An attempt to “unProtestantize” the Anglican Church.
66 Important figure in the Oxford Movement who eventually left the Anglican Church
John Henry Newman
66 John Henry Newman century
19th
66 John Henry Newman wrote
Apologia Pro Vita Sua, explains the steps he took as he moved from Protestantism into Catholicism
66 Apologia Pro Vita Sua
John Henry Newman
67 Preacher at Metropolitan Tabernacle in England
Charles Haddon Spurgeon
67 Charles Haddon Spurgeon known as
great doctrinal preacher, defender of The reformed faith against Arminianism, The protestant faith against resurgent Catholicism, and The evangelical faith against “The Downgrade Controversy” where he fought for Baptists not to abandon Calvinism and Orthodoxy
68 Major developments in Scottish Presbyterianism in the 19th century
missions (Alexander Duff and Robert Murray McCheyne), birth of The Free Church of Scotland arising out of “The Disruption” of 1843 which took about 1/3 of members to the new Free Church
68 First Scottish Presbyterian missionary
Alexander Duff, 1829 missionary to India
68 After him missions began to be a part of the regular work of the Church of Scotland
Alexander Duff to India in 1829
68 Emphasized missions abroad and godliness at home – prayed at length on Saturdays before he preached on Sundays
Robert Murray McCheyne
68 Major year in Scottish Church history because of climax of discord “Ten Years Conflict” resulting in “The Disruption”
1843
68 The Free Church of Scotland born this year
1843
68 The Free Church of Scotland left the main church over
a form of Erastianism that denied the true gospel.
68 Thomas Chalmers
helped lead the beginnings of the Free Church of Scotland, ordained minister in the state church before he was converted reading Pascal and Wilberforce
68 Free church leaders
Chalmers, William Cunningham, “Rabbi” John Duncan, Horatius Bonar
68 In Scotland, by 1929
most of the Scottish Presbyterians came back together in the Church of Scotland
69 19th century revival in Europe took place in
Switzerland, France, Germany, Holland, and the Netherlands
69 Revival in Switzerland outline
theology at Calvin’s Academy had turned Unitarian with philosophy of Enlightenment. Robert Haldane was a Scot who came to Geneva a taught through Romans from his hotel room with a group of students. d’Augbigne was influenced by Haldane and wrote History of Reformation. Gaussen was also influenced by Haldane and wrote on inerrancy of Scripture in work called Theopneustia. Eventually d’Aubigne and others formed Free Church in Geneva.
69 Name associated with revival in Switzerland
Robert Haldane
69 Revival in France outline
Similar to Swiss revival. 1802 Reformed churches are once again legalized in France after over 100-year persecution after Revocation of Edict of Nantes. Frederic and Adolph Monod lay preachers whose work, along with that of Haldane who traveled to France, resulted in The Free Reformed Church in 1849
69 Names associated with Revival in France
Frederic and Adolph Monod, Robert Haldane (who traveled to France from Switzerland)
69 Revival in Germany outline
revival based on bible study, spiritual life, and confessional orthodoxy in both Lutheran and Reformed camps. Leaders – Neander, Tholuck, Schlatter
69 Names associated with Revival in Germany
Neander, Tholuck, Schlatter
70 Revival in Netherlands outline
Enlightenment thought called “Revolutionary” thought. Important names Bilderdijk, Prinsterer. Two main secessions – “The Secession” Reformed Church and the “Doleantie”
70 Revival in Netherlands names
Bilderdijk and Prinsterer
70 Two main secessions in Netherlands
“The Secession” Reformed Church and the “Doleantie”
70 1892 in Netherlands
churches of the Doleantie and The Secession merge to form the Reformed Churches in the Netherlands. Abraham Kuyper instrumental.
70 He was instrumental in the 1892 merger that formed the Reformed Churches in the Netherlands
Abraham Kuyper
71 Abraham Kuyper dates
1837-1920
71 Kuyper was
pastor, newspaper editor, educator, theologian, prime minister
71 Kuyper’s lectures at Princeton Seminary
The Stone Lectures
71 Stone Lectures topics
Calvinism as relates to Life, History, Religion, Politics, Science, Art, and the Future
71 Neo-Calvinism
sometimes used to describe Kuyper’s movement. Brought Calvinism and the Reformed World and Life view back into a country that once knew them well.
71 The Stone Lectures
Kuyper’s lectures on Calvinism given at Princeton Seminary in 1898
71 Stone Lectures year
1898
72 J. (John) Gresham Machen was born on
July 28, 1881.
72 Machen’s father was
prominent Baltimore lawyer, who instilled in his son an interest in legal reasoning, logic and classical literature.(
72 Machen's mother
also exerted a strong influence on her son, in obtaining a thorough knowledge of the Bible and the Westminster Catechism.
72 Machen’s upbringing
Machen enjoyed a rather privileged up bringing. He attended a local private academy and received a classical education.
72 Machen got his undergraduate degree at
JHU
72 After his undergraduate degree, Machen went to
Princeton where he completed seminary and got a degree in Philosophy
72 Machen ordained in
1914 and promoted to assistant professor the same year
72 Machen considered himself
and consciously chose the title of Calvinist, an adherent of the Reformed faith, in the tradition flowing from the Word of God through Paul, Augustine, Calvin, and in America in the noteworthy and great tradition represented by Charles Hodge, B.B. Warfield, and the other representatives of the "Princeton School,"
72 Machen’s view of the fundamentalist-modernist controversy
opposed the union because it would unite in one body, denominations that had significant theological differences
72 Founded Westminster Seminary
J Gresham Machen
72 New Testament professor at Princeton since1906
J Gresham Machen
73 Thesis of Machen’s Book Christianity and Liberalism
liberalism is a different religion from Christianity
73 Wrote Christianity and Liberalism
J. Gresham Machen
73 Themes in Machen’s Christianity and Liberalism
Doctrine, God and Man, The Bible, Christ, Salvation, The Church
74 Fundamentalism is
a conservative theological movement in American Protestantism that arose to national prominence in the 1920’s in response to “modernism”
74 Fundamentalism is rooted in
a theological concern for apostolic and Reformation doctrine growing out of American revivalism
74 Fundamentalism should be understood primarily as
an attempt to protect the essential doctrines of the Christian faith from the eroding effects of modern thought.
74 The roots of fundamentalism
go back into the nineteenth century when evolution, biblical criticism, and the study of comparative religions began to challenge old assumptions about the authority of biblical revelation.
74 Fundamentalism in 1920
Curtis Lee Laws and others form a group within the Northern Baptist Convention adopted the name “fundamentalist” during a conference held in Buffalo, NY.
74 Curtis Lee Laws and the original group of fundamentalists were
moderate conservatives committed to upholding the fundamentals of the Gospel, and were not identified with dispensationalism or a crusade against evolutionary teaching, as would characterize fundamentalists later.
74 Fundamentalism among Presbyterians
Among Presbyterians, the conservative position was championed by J. G. Machen. Out of this movement the Orthodox Presbyterian and Bible Presbyterian churches were born.
74 Gradually, “fundamentalism” came to be used loosely for
all theological conservatism, including militants, moderates of the Laws type, and a scholarly type represented by Machen.
74 Due to the tactics of certain leaders, the fundamentalist image eventually became stereotyped as
close-minded, belligerent, and separatistic.
75 Sometimes called the Father of modern theology
Friedrich Schleiemacher
75 Brought up among the Moravians. Influenced by the Enlightenment at University so that he developed a rational, critical view of Scripture, but also strongly influenced by Romanticism
Friedrich Schleiemacher
75 Wrote On Religion: Speeches to its Cultured Despisers
Friedrich Schleiemacher
Schleiemacher famous book in which he sought to find some way to make Christianity relevant again to people who had seemed to have given up on it in the university world
On Religion: Speeches to its Cultured Despisers
75 Solution of On Religion: Speeches to its Cultured Despisers
What one feels deep within his or her own being is the essence of religion. That feeling of being in relation to God is the heart and soul of religion.
75 On Religion: Speeches to its Cultured Despisers written
1799 by Friedrich Schleiemacher
75 Schleiemacher dates
late 18th early 19th century.
76 Theological modernism was based largely on the work
of Schleiemacher and Ritschl
76 Theological modernism attempted to
reconstruct the Christian faith along largely ethical lines in accordance with “modern findings” of science and history, and to understand the progress of the kingdom of God simply in terms of social and political betterment.
76 Attempted to reconstruct the Christian faith along largely ethical lines in accordance with “modern findings” of science and history, and to understand the progress of the kingdom of God simply in terms of social and political betterment
theological modernism
76 Movements that fought the influence of modernism
Tractarianism, the “downgrade” controversy among British Baptists, and American fundamentalism
76 Probably the most important indictment of modernism from the standpoint of the historic Reformed faith
J. G. Machen’s Christianity and Liberalism (1923)
76 Brought about the decline of modernism in its “classic form”
Karl Barth and the rise of the Biblical Theology movement
77 Neo-orthodoxy is
teaching and preaching the Christian Faith, but it wasn’t liberalism or orthodoxy.
77 Neo-orthodoxy name
Karl Barth
77 Karl Barth life
1886-1968
77 Karl Barth background
member of Swiss Reformed Church, trained as liberal, faced pastoral crisis “what am I going to say to my people?” Discovered that critical knowledge of the bible was not something he could preach, returned to old reformed orthodoxy, though he doesn’t go completely back to orthodoxy or scripture
77 Commentary on Romans
Karl Barth wrote.
77 Barth always appears contradictory partly because
he uses a dialectical method to try to find truth by posing questions.
77 Three serious problems in Barth
saw scripture as veiled in human language and not inerrant. doubted the historical accuracy of the bible, had a pretty universalistic view of election
Good in Barth
directed many theologians and people back to the Reformation traditions, grace, redemption, etc.
78 Vatican I dates and issue
1869-70, Papal infallibility
78 Vatican II dates and issue
1962-65, aggiornamento (updating) of church, new openness toward “separated brethren”, continued commitment to power of pope
78 Response to Vatican II by Catholic Church
variously, dismay, evangelicalism, modernism
78 Italian word meaning “updating” or “modernizing”
aggiornamento
79 Distinctives of Eastern Orthodoxy
Infallibility resides in the Church, theosis (deification) is chief goal, beauty in liturgy, mystery (Apophaticism)
79 Eastern orthodox word for deification of human nature or oneness with God
theosis
79 Greek orthodox word for “the dark” or mystery
Apophaticism
80-100 Daniel Baker
19th cent. evangelist and itinerant preacher who saw tremendous blessing and periods of revival occur under his ministry. Traveled primarily in the southern, southeastern, and eastern states.
19th cent evangelist and itinerant preacher in southern and eastern states
Daniel Baker
80-100 Timothy Dwight
Late 18th, early 19th century congregational theologian and educator. President of Yale who reformed the school and tripled enrolment.
Revival took place under his preaching, which by 1802 saw 1/3 of the students of Yale converted
Timothy Dwight
80-100 18th/19th cent. President of Yale who reformed school and tripled enrolment
Timothy Dwight
80-100 Asahel Nettleton
early 19th century evangelist who involved local pastors in his awakening work, emphasizing the need to teach and nurture any who were converted. Meetings were dignified and subdued.
80-100 His revival meetings were dignified and subdued
Asahel Nettleton
80-100 Early 19th cent. evangelist who stressed shepherding of new converts
Asahel Nettleton
80-100 David Livingstone
19th century Scottish Missionary doctor/explorer, to Africa, sent by the London Missionary Society. Published Missionary Travels and Researches in South Africa.
80-100 Wrote Missionary Travels and Researches in South Africa
David Livingstone
80-100 Livingstone was from
Scotland
80-100 Henry Martyn
Early 19th cent. Anglican missionary to India, inspired by David Brainard's journal and wrote his own journal, which became one of the great devotional and missionary books of the 19th century.
80-100 Early 19th century Anglican missionary to India
Henry Martyn
80-100 Inspired by David Brainard’s journal and later wrote his own, which became one of the great devotional and missionary books of the 19th century
Henry Martyn
80-100 Adoniram Judson
19th century American Congregationalist missionary sent to India in 1812 by American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. Became Baptist after studying his bible on the boat on journey over. Baptist Mission Board started to support foreign missions. Became famous missionary to Burma.
80-100 19th century Congregational missionary to India who became Baptist on the boat on the way over
Adoniram Judson
80-100 Baptist Mission Board started to support him
Adoniram Judson
80-100 Became famous missionary to Burma
Adoniram Judson
80-100 Thomas Chalmers
19th century professor at St. Andrews whose evangelical influence led to the Church of Scotland dedicating itself to mission work. Latter leader of the new Free Church of Scotland, the most evangelical of Scottish denominations.
80-100 19th Cent. professor at St. Andrews who led Church of Scotland to dedicate itself to mission work
Thomas Chalmers
80-100 Leader of the new Free Church of Scotland
Thomas Chalmers
80-100 The most evangelical of Scottish denominations
the Free Church of Scotland
80-100 Mary Slessor
Late 19th/early 20th cent. Scottish United Presbyterian Church missionary to Africa who lived like a poor African. Became one of most knowledgeable people on African Law in all the church.
80-100 She became one of the most knowledgeable people on African Law in all the church
Mary Slessor
80-100 Scottish United Presbyterian Church missionary to Africa who lived like poor African
Mary Slessor
80-100 Alexander Duff
19th cent. first foreign missionary of Church of Scotland. Missionary to India. Left to become part of the Free Church of Scotland at the time of the Disruption in 1843. Student of Thomas Chalmers. Moderator of general assembly in 1851
80-100 First foreign missionary of the Church of Scotland
Alexander Duff, to India
80-100 Scottish missionary to India who left to become a part of the Free Church of Scotland at the time of the Disruption
Alexander Duff
80-100 Year of “The Disruption”
1843
80-100 Student of Thomas Chalmers who was moderator of general assembly in 1851
Alexander Duff
80-100 Archibald Alexander
l8th/19th century. Presbyterian theologian and educator. President of Hampden-Sydney College, then first professor at the theological seminary at Princeton.
80-100 18th/19th century. Presbyterian theologian and educator. President of Hampden-Sydney College
Archibald Alexander
80-100 First professor at the theological seminary at Princeton
Archibald Alexander
80-100 Charles Hodge
19th century leading American theologian. Instructor at Princeton for most of his life. Rigorously defended biblical inspiration.
80-100 Charles Hodge Famous writings include
Commentary on the Epistle to the Romans and Systematic Theology.
80-100 He served as moderator of the general assembly (old school) in 1846
Charles Hodge
80-100 Opposed the New School views of doctrine and policy and supported division over the Old School, New School controversy
Charles Hodge
80-100 Charles Simeon
18th/19th cent. vicar of Holy Trinity church in Cambridge, inspired his students (including Henry Martyn) with a zeal for missions.
80-100 Charles Simeon writings
Horae Homileticae is book of his sermon outlines from Genesis to Revelation.
80-100 Charles Simeon was part of
the Clapham Sect – outstanding lay Christians who were people of influence and power and prestige in the London area who dedicated themselves to putting evangelical life into practice and determined to take the truth of the Bible and apply it to social conditions in England.
80-100 Outstanding lay Christians who were people of influence and power and prestige in the London area
the Clapham Sect (included Charles Simeon and William Wilberforce)
80-100 William Wilberforce
18th/19th cent. most famous member of The Clapham Sect. A Member of Parliament at age 21. Abolition of slave trade and reformation of conduct of England (to see true Christianity practiced among the middle and upper classes of England again) were his two great missions.
80-100 William Wilberforce writings
A Practical View of the Prevailing Religious System of Professed Christians, in the Higher and Middle Classes in this Country, Contrasted with Real Christianity (1797)
80-100 Member of Parliament who stirred the consciences of thousands of people who saw what real Christianity was for the first time
William Wilberforce
80-100 Abolition of slave trade and reformation of conduct of England were his two great missions
William Wilberforce
80-100 Soren Kierkegaard
19th cent. “The Melancholy Dane” Saw need to reintroduce Christianity into his own Christian country. Sometimes called the first existentialist because he insisted we can’t do anything to bring God down to our level.
80-100 The Melancholy Dane
Soren Kierkegaard
80-100 Called all the popular enlightenment thoughts delusions, because they failed to address the reality of death in its optimistic evolutionary humanism
Soren Kierkegaard.
80-100 Friedrich August Tholuck
19th century German Protestant theologian. Converted under Pietist influences and turned to the study of theology. Professor of theology at Halle for forty-nine years. Connected with revival movement. Opposed rationalism.
80-100 Professor of theology at Halle in 19th century
Friedrich August Tholuck
80-100 19th cent. German Protestant theologian who opposed rationalism
Tholuck
80-100 Adolf Schlatter
19th/20th century Swiss NT Scholar. Ecumenical in outlook, and concerned to mediate between liberals and Pietists. Historian who stressed theology.
80-100 Historian who stressed place of theology in history
Adolf Schlatter
80-100 B.B. Warfield
1851-1921 American Presbyterian scholar. Succeeded A.A. Hodge as professor of theology at Princeton. Vigorously defended biblical inerrancy.
80-100 B.B. Warfield Books
An Introduction to the Textual Criticism of the new Testament, The Lord of Glory, The Plan of Salvation, The Acts and Pastoral Epistles, and Counterfeit Miracles.
80-100 Succeeded A.A. Hodge as professor of theology at Princeton
B.B. Warfield
80-100 Charles Finney
19th century American lawyer turned revivalist whose “New Measures” influenced the course of revivalism and American History
80-100 Finney’s “New Measures”
revivalism as an organized plan.
80-100 Finney’s theology
Reformed and Calvinistic theology abandoned for Arminian/pelagian theology.
80-100 John Henry Newman
19th century Tractarian and cardinal. Raised in an Evangelical home, gradually moved toward High Church at Oxford. Eventually received into the Roman Church.
80-100 Wanted to show via media of Church of England but eventually resigned his vicarage there and was received into the Roman Church. Eventually made a cardinal
John Henry Newman
80-100 John Henry Newman’s Writings
Development of Christian Doctrine, Apologia Pro Vita Sua, Grammar of Assent.
80-100 Richard and Reinhold Niebuhr
20th cent. brothers who were neo-orthodox theologians.
80-100 20th cent. brothers who were neo-orthodox theologians
Richard and Reinhold Niebuhr
80-100 Richard Niebuhr was
scholarly, taught at Yale, known for writings exploring the relationship of faith and civilization.
80-100 Richard Niebuhr Wrote
Social Sources of Denominationalism, The Kingdom of God in America, The Meaning of Revelation, Radical Monotheism and Western Culture, and Christ and Culture.
80-100 Reinhold Niebuhr taught
at Union Theological Seminary. His theology united pragmatism and Christian Orthodoxy to effect a theology that accepted God’s sovereignty and encouraged men to reform institutions.
80-100 Reinhold Niebuhr Wrote
Christian Realism and Social Problems, Moral Man and Immoral Society, Faith and History, and The Nature and Destiny of Man
80-100 Wrote Christ and Culture
Richard Niebuhr
80-100 Known for writings exploring the relationship of faith and civilization
Richard Niebuhr
80-100 Known for his theology, which united pragmatism and Christian orthodoxy and encouraged reform while acknowledging God’s sovereignty
Reinhold Niebuhr
80-100 James Henley Thornwell
19th century Presbyterian minister and scholar. President for a brief time at what would become the University of South Carolina, then became professor of systematic theology at Columbia Theological Seminary. Founded The Southern Presbyterian Review and helped to establish the Presbyterian Church in the Confederate States during the Civil War.
80-100 Helped establish the Presbyterian Church in the Confederate States during the Civil War
James Henley Thornwell
80-100 President for a brief time at what would become the University of South Carolina, then became professor of systematic theology at Columbia Theological Seminary
James Henley Thornwell