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14 Cards in this Set

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1. When, where and why was Reform found?
1800s, Germany, Jews wanted to be a part of the society and they thought of Judiasm as a burden on them.
2. Point out the four liberal beliefs.
1. autonomy over laws
2. modern culutre embraced
3. introduced alternative ways to study the bible
4. principles of faith are not taught in traditionalist methods
3. How was early Reform reflected?
Early Reform belief denied divine authorship of the torah. They said that only the moral and understandable laws were required and the rituals were not. Circumcision was no longer done. Prayer services were accompanied by instruments mostly organs, the rabbi dressed in Protestant garb, and the prayer book was in the vernacular. They called their synagogues Temples. they called the land they lived in the new zion and rejected all desire to live in palestine.
4. What is the Reform movement approach to Theology today?
many interpretations to god. theism, monothiesm, diesm,
now incorporating more halakah into the lives
monothiems- beleif in one god
thiesm- beleif in a higher being
diesm- beleif that God can not interfere with the world
5. Talk about the evolution in Reform’s perspectives as highlighted in the three conferences in the following aspects:
G-d
Torah
Hallacha
Israel
God- they have always beleived in god.
Torah- reject divine authorship, has not changed
Hallacha- rejected it all, started accepted more beleifs
Israel- first anti-zionist to not have dual loyalty, now support it
6. What is Reform position on Halacha today?
should be used limitedly and should be used to enchance the lives.
7. What is the approach in regards to Jewish Identity?
can be passed down through mother or father
8. Social Justice – what is the vision?
all morals in bible. help all people
9. Perspective on Intermarriages.
they will intermarry only if the children are rasied jewish
10. Perspective on Conversion
they encourage it greatly, especially to a gentile spouse
Mordechai Kaplan
Judaism should be reconciled with modern thought and reason. god can not be understood by anyone. He founded the Reconstuctionist movement which was originally in Conservative, but the left wing of it.
Isaac Mayer Wise
he was a mjor force in Reform Judaism. made many organazations, Hebrew union college and wrote Minhag America, the Refrom prayer book. he wanted reform to be american jewry. Founder of Reform Judaism in America.
Zacharias Frankel
he studies the historical part of Judaism. he concluded that Judaism changed with History. He created Positive-Historical Judaism in Germany, which was the predecessor to the conservative movement.
Abraham Joshua Heschel
he was a teacher at JTS, but brought some reform principles to Conservative, like emphasis on social action. He was rejected by the JTS staff but later was accepted.