Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/821

Click to flip

821 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
0.22 micrometer
Min pore size required for membrane filtration for sterilization
1 quart
960 ml
10 angstrom
1 nanometer
100 clean room
Not more than 100 particles per cubic ft of 0.5 mcm or larger size
10-20 mcg/ml
Normal bld serum conc DILANTIN
10-20%
% of alcohol found in wine
120 days
Life span of RBC
120mg
Min weighable quantity for class A rx balance
12-14 seconds
Normal range of prothrombin time
1-5 seconds
Normal activated partial thromboplastin time
15%
Acceptable ratio for 10 yr old rx net profit to net worth
180mg/dl
Normal threshold for glucose in the kidney
1st line antihypertensive agents
HCTZ, atenolol
1st pass effect of metabolism
Rapid degradation of a drug by liver enzymes
1st trimester
Risk teratogenesis is highest
2 variances
F distribution compares
2,4,6 trinitrophenol
High conc of H3O ions when dissolved in water
200 units of insulin per day
Insulin resistant
240mg/dl
High cholesterol
253 nm
Sterilization by UV radiation – wavelength
2ndary response
Humoral immunity, antigen recognized by memory cells enters the blood
2ndary structure of protein
Alfa-helix, beta sheet, beta bend
3.5 to 5meq/L
Normal adult plasma conc of K
30% of over the labeled potency
Max % of overages –limited
320 nm UV light
Sunscreen products should cover
5 days
Ketorolac trmt restricted trmt
5 fluorouracil
Fluoronation will result into a well known cancer drug
5 to 7%
Acceptable ratio for net profit to net sales
50 units of insulin per day
Normal pancreas secretion
65% w/w
Sucrose conc retard growth of microorganisms
72 hours
Partial filling of sched 2
8 to 10%
Alcohol content of low iso-alcohol elixir
80%
Ribosomal rna
80-120 ml/min
Normal renal creatinine clearance
9 TIMES
Conc reactant alfa is triple in the rxn that is in 2nd order, rate of rxn would increase
a. fungi
Cancidas treat infections
AAC –antibiotic associated colitis
Clindamycin-adv effect
Absolute density
Ratio of mass of an object measured in a vacuum at specific temp to vol (ml) of an object at the same temp
Abx trmt UTI
Cipro, cotrimoxazole, nitrofurantoin
Acarbose
Contraindicated for inflammatory bowel dz, colonic ulceration, intestinal obstruction
Acarbose
Do not take table sugar
Acarbose
Precose
Accelerated stability testing of pharmaceuticals
Temperature, humidity, light
Accidental overdose drug poisoning
Charcoal plus, actidose with sorbitol, actidose aqua
Accolate
Antagonize LTRA rec w/c release SRSA
Accolate
LTRA
Acct receivable collection
Year end account receivable
Ac-ti-sol
Disintegrant in manufacturing tablets
Acetanilide
CH3CONHC6H5
Acetazolamide
Inhibition of carbonic anhydrase enzyme
Acetone
Semipolar solvent
Acetylcysteine
Mucolytic or reduce viscosity of mucous
Achlorhydria
Stoppage or impaired secretion of HCl in the stomach
Acid fast stain
Mycobacterium species of bacteria
Acid test
Measures rx liquidity
Acid test ratio
-liquidity of rx, ratio of quick asset to current liability, the closer the current liability to a rx quick asset the more ideal the acid-test ratio
Action of histamine
Gastric acid stimulation, vasodilation, contraction of smooth muscle
Actiq
Fentanyl
Active immunization
Mumps, rabies, plague
Active metabolite of primidone-prodrug
Phenobarbital,PEMA
Actuary
Person who works for ins co
Advair discus
Fluticasone and salmeterol, bid dosing used for prevention of acute attacks of asthma
Adverse eff – Insulin therapy
Hypoglycemia, lipoatrophy, lipohypertrophy
Adverse effects of aminoglycosides
Ototoxicity, nephrotoxicity, curaremimetic eff
Aggrenox
Aspirin, dipyridamole
Agranulocytosis
Adv effect of clozaril
Airborne disease
Measles
Albumin
Major plasma protein involved in drug binding
Alcohol as disinfectant
70% conc alcohol ionizes the best and provides optimum disinfection, wets the skin smoothly and evaporates slowly
Alfa-methyl noradrenaline
Acts as false neurotransmitter
Allegation method
75 25(75% alc)
Allegra
Histamine H1 rec antagonist
Allergic to mesalamine
Avoid asacol , pentasa,
Alpha 1 receptors
Doxazosin,terazosin, prazosin
Alpha 2 rec
Prevents the release of noradrenaline
Alpha error
5% - significant
Alprazolam
Bz –geriatric pt
Amaryl
Htn
Ames test
To find out if the subs is carcinogenic
Amifostine
Cisplatin toxicity
Amiloride
Diuretic, acts inhibit Na,K, Atpase
Aminogluthethimide
Cushing syndrome
Amlodipine
CCB
Ammonium Cl , ammonium nitrate, cacl
Reduce absorption of acidic drugs
Amrinone
Inodilator
Amyl nitrite
Cyanide poisoining
Anafranil
OCD
Analysis of variance
Check for significance between 2 or more grps of means
Angiotensin II
Vasoconstriction
Angiotensin II antagonist
Diovan, cozaar, avapro
Aniline
Lowest pkb value
Antabuse
Avoid taking: synophylate elixir and elixophyline elixir
Antagonizes action of Opiod drugs
Naloxone, natrexon, nalmefene
Anterior pituitary – hormone
Growth hormones, thyrotropic
Antihemophilic factor- factor 8
Pt w/ hemophilia
Antihistamines with NO sedation prop
Astemizole, cetirizine, terfenadine
Antimicrobial agents
Isopropyl alcohol, phenol, hydrogen peroxide
Antioxidant
Addition of ascorbyl palmitate in manufacturing process
Antitoxin, hyperimmune sera, immuneserum globulin
Intro of ready made antibodies into a normal person in order to induce immunization against a particular disease
Antitussive property
Codeine, dextromethophan, benzonatate
Anuria
Absence of secretion of urine by the kidney
Anzemet
BPH ;Monitor with cat scan
Aplastic anemia
Major adv eff of chloramphenicol
Aplastic anemia
Lack of fxn of bone marrow
Aplastic anemia
Drug induced hematological disorder assoc w/ highest morbidity and mortality rates
APTT
Test to monitor heparin therapy
Arava
Leflunomide antirheumatic
Arimidex
Breast cancer
Arlex
Do not use for more than 10 days- allergic conjunctivitis
Arm ratio test, rider graduated beam test, shift test
Required to check sensitivity of class A weighing prescription balance
Arthralgia
Principal adverse effect of Pyrazinamide
AST
Regularly check- Precose
Asthma attack elevated levels
TLC,FRV,RV
Asthma attack- factor trigger
Tobacco smoke, exercise, cold air
Atacand
Angiotensin II receptor antagonists
Ativan
Sed hyp antiemetic for cancer chemo n/v
Attenuation
Process of weakening the disease producing capacity of pathogens
AUC
Amt of drug systematically absorbed
Avalide
Irbesartan and HCTZ
Avita cream
Once a day
Avoid sunlight
Hydrodiuril, mellaril, sumycin
Avoid with depression
Clonidine, methyldopa, reserpine
Azopt
Glaucoma
B and T lymphocytes
Immune responses of the body
Bacteremia
Presence of bacteria without multiplication in blood
Barium sulfate
Used for roentgenography for exam of stomach and colon; causes constipation,mix w/ food
Basic drugs
Beta globulin, acid glycoprotein
Baycol
HMG COA
Benzyl alcohol
Preservative
Beta carotene
Helps in visual adaptation in darkness
Beta error
hypothetical value of a parameter is the same as the observed value of a parameter
Beta islets of langerhans
Sulfonylurea stimulates the release of insulin in the pancreas
Beta max
0.576 x c
Betapace
Pretrmt – check creatinine clearance
Betapace AF
Dosing admin, PPI
Bias
systematic difference from the true value
Bile acid binding resins
Questran, colestid, welchol
Bile salt
Emulsifying agent for metabolism of lipid in the duodenum
Binomial distribution
P + Q = 1
Binomial experiment
Each trial results in an outcome that is classified as success or failure, experiment consists of n-repeated trials, probability of success remain constant from trial to trial
Blending
Increase in mutual solubility of 2 partially miscible liq by the addition of a 3rd subs
Bleomycin
Acts on replication levels of protein synthesis pulmonary fibrosis
Body mass index
Weight (kg) / height (meter) 2
Bradykinin
Causing dry cough receiving ACE
Brethine
Severe headaches
Bromocriptine
Antiparkinson- dopamine rec agonist
Bromocriptine- prolong use
Monitor thru pulmonary fxn
Brownian motion
Random motion of solute particles in colloidal dispersion
Brownian motion of colloidal particles reduced by
Increasing viscosity of dispersion medium
Bulk laxatives
Metamucil, Citrucel, mitrolan
Bumex
Loop diuretic
Bupropion
Smoking cessation
Butorphanol
Opiod nasal spray
C = C
Requires the greatest amount of energy
C/I in trmt of BPH
Benadryl, entex, atrohist plus
Cabbage and cauliflower
Good source of vit k
Calcarb
Highest amount of elementary calcium
Calcitriol
Mobilizes bone calcium into blood
Calcium gluconate
Lowest amt of elementary calcium
Calcium phosphate
Diluent avoid with TCN
Callhydryl lotion, bactrim susp, pen g procaine depot inj
Carafate
Constipation
Carboplatin
Major side eff; nausea and vomitting
Carrots
Vit a source
CAT
Synthesis of acetylcholine occurs in nerve fibers in the presence of
Catabolic reaction
Breakdown of complex molecules such as protein, lipid and polysaccharide into simple molecules such as carbon dioxide, water and ammonia
Catapres TTS
Replace every week
Category x
Restricted during pregnancy
Cationic agents
Class of surfactants widely used as preservative
Causes hemolytic anemia with G6PD def
Oxidant drug, ingestion of fava beans, certain types of infection
Ceftriaxone
Meningitis
Certified colors
FD and C, D and C, External D and C
Chemo induced nausea and vomiting
Zofran, kytril, anzemet
CHF patients
Carefully prescribe doxorubicin, esmolol, daunorobicin
Chi Square test
2x2 =1
Chi square test
Nonparametric statistic
Chi square test
a-1 x b-1
Chloride ions
Assoc with gaba rec to produce tranquilizing effects
Chlormerodrin(radioisotope)
Pharmaceutical use- localize brain tumors
Chlorpropamide
Sulfonylurea –diabetes insipidus
Chlorpropamide
Diabetic drug-produce disulfiram rxn w/ alc
Chlorpropamide
Avoid in old pt – sulfonylurea
Cholelithiasis
Obstruction of gall bladder by cholesterol stone
Cholestatic Jaundice
Chlorpromazine,Erythromycin estolate
Cholesterol
Major precursor of steroid hormone
Cholinergic drugs use
Glaucoma, atony of bladder, myasthenia gravis
Chromophores
Part of the molecule that absorbs the ultraviolet light or visible light
Cimetidine
H2 rec antagonist
Ciprofloxacin
Antibacterial, inhibit bacterial DNA synthesis by blocking DNA gyrase
Circle
X2 + y2 =1
Cis
Same side
Cisplatin
Ototoxicity, renal toxicity, n/v
Cl tetani
Anaerobic organism
Class 1
Recall class – potential heath hazard
Class 1 C antiarry
Restricted only for life threatening arrh
Climara transdermal
Change every week
Clofazimine
Longest half life
Clomid
Ovulatory dysfunction
Clorpres
Diuretic, chlorthalidone
Closed-ended question
Requires an answer in the form of yes or no
CMC
Minimum conc w/c physical properties of solns of assoc colloids (electrical conductance & osmotic pressure show marked changes
CNS stimulation
Adv effect assoc w/ quinolone drp abx
Cold cream
w/o emulsion
Cold sterilization
Removing 0.2 mcm or larger particles incl microorganisms from the solution
Collected blood storage temp
4 to 6 degrees
Combivent
Ipratropium and albuterol sulfate
Compliance
Overutilization /underutilization of drug, admin of meds at inappropriate times
Compound W
Salicyclic acid
Conc of drug at rec site
Does not affect protein binding of drug
Conjugation
Transfer of genetic info from 1 cell to another cell is carried out by the plasmid
Copayment
Pt pay specified amt of the cost of rx and 3rd party to pay remaining cost
Corn starch
Increase flow property of granules
Cortisol
Naturally occurring glucocorticoid
Cotazym, pancrease, zymase
Useful dietary supplement prdts of pancrelipase enzymes
Cozaar
Blocking ace type II
Current assets
Cash, A/R, inventory
Current liability
Notes payable beyond 1 year
Cyclert (pemoline)
Cns stimulant
Cyclobenzaprine
Centrally acting muscle relaxant
Cyclosphosphamide
H cystitis
Cyclosporine allergy
Avoid sandimune and gengraf
Cytoxan
H cystitis or bladder toxicity
D list
Drugs withdrawn
Dalmane
BZ with prolonged duration of action
Dantrolene
Doc for MS
Dapsone
Abx inhibit the synthesis of folic acid from PABA
Dark field
Unstained living or difficult to stain organism
Darvocet overdose
Respiratory depression with cheyne storke
DDAVP
Synthetic analogue of pituitary hormone
Defective teeth and bones
Principal side eff of TCN
Deferoxamine mesylate
IM, IV,SC
Degree of freedom in t distribution
N – 1
Demeclocycline
Trmt inappropriate secretion of ADH
Denaturation of protein occur
Heat, strong acid, organic solvent
Density
Weight
Depakote
Acts by increasing the conc of GABA
Desmopressin
Used for diabetes insipidus, hemophilia a, williebrand’s dz
Dextran
Polysaccharide
Diabenese
When taken with benadryl causes flushing , throbbing headache, difficulty in breathing, n/v, weakness, blurred vision
Diabetes – long term complication
Cataract, renal failure, peripheral neuropathy
Diabetic ketoacidosis
Rapid pulse, presence of glucose and acetone in urine, acetone breath
Diarrhea
Structure activity relationships would eliminate side effects of Ampicillin
Diffusion
Transfer of drug from high conc to low conc
Digoxin
Avoid taking Erythromycin, Quinidine, Colestipol
Dihydrostreptomycin
Metabolite prdts of streptomycin , cause deafness
Dilantin adverse effects
Gingival hyperplasia, SLE, ataxia
Dilatant flow
Shear thickening system
Diphtheria
Prepared from a toxin
Diphydotestosterone
Prostate cancer
Diphydrotachysterol
Trmt of tetany, idiopathic tetany, hypoparathyroidism
Dipyridamole
Adjunctive therapy with coumadin with cardiac valve replacement
Dipyridamole
Platelet adhesion inhibitor
Direct titration,complexation rxn, redox rxn
Titrimetric method of analysis
Disinfection
Reduction of the numbers of pathogenic microorganism – unable to produce dz
Disintegration
Breakdown of tablets into smaller particles or granules
Disopyramide
Avoid in CHF
Dispensing fees method
Prescription pricing system
Disulfiram like reaction
Flushing of skin, palpitation with throbbing headache, nausea and vomiting
Dopamine D1 receptor
Short term mgmt of severe htn
Dopamine receptor agonist
Permax, parnate
Dornase alfa
Trmt of cystic fibrosis
Dorzolamide
Antiglaucoma- carbonic anhydrase enzyme
Double blind study
Evaluation of placebo
Doxapram
Pt w/ acute hypercapnia
Doxorubicin
Adv eff Cardiac failure
Doxorubicin
Myocardial toxicity
Droxia (hydroxyurea)
Sickle cell anemia
Drug dissolution
Helpful to predict rate of Noyes Whitney equation
Drugs cause hemolysis in a pt with G6PD deficiency
Chloroquine, sulfonamide, dimercaprol, Quinine, nitrofurantoin
Drugs fact and comparison
Europe trip
E coli
UTI
E coli
Travelers diarrhea
Efflorescence
Subs lose water to establish equilibrium with surrounding atmosphere and forms an anhydrous salt
Egg yolk/ egg white
Emulsifying agent
Elavil
Depression with anxiety
Elavil allergy
Avoid tegretol and atenolol
Electrolyte loss
Adv effect of metolazone
Emdex
Hydrolysed starch
Enantiomers
Pairs of structure – mirror images of each other
Endoplasmic reticulum
Synthesis of protein and lipids in cell
Enzyme inhibition reactions
Most clinically significant type of interaction, inhibition of substrate metabolism tends to begin as soon as sufficient conc of the inhibitors are reached, elderly pt’s are at greater risk
Enzyme inhibitor
Tagamet, prozac, cipro
Epinephrine and Norepinephrine
Increase pheochromocytoma
Epoetin alpha
Zidovudine induced anemia
Epogen
Anemia of chronic failure pt
Equivalent conductance
Conductance of a soln containing 1 gm of eq wgt of solute measured in a cell when both electrodes are spaced 1 cm apart
Equivalent wgt
MW in grams / # of valence
Erythema multiforme
Presence of erythematous macules and papules
Erythrocytes
Elevated in pt w/ polycythemia vera
Erythromycin
Legionnaire’s dz, mycoplasma pneumonia, campylobacterial infection
Essential fatty acids in humans
Linoleic acid, lenolenic acid, arachidonic acid
Estradiol
Most potent estrogen in human body
Estrogen deficiency
Hot flashes
Ethanol
Antidote for methanol poisoning
Evaluate bioequivalency of drugs
Time to reach peak conc, AVC, conc of drug at plateau level
Excedrine avoid
Reye’s syndrome
Excess of thyroid hormone
Graves dz
Exotoxin
End product of metabolism produced by gram +ve bacteria, water soluble, has the ability to pass thru surrounding cell, thermolabile in nature
F
Highest electronegativity
Factors affect flow property of particles
Porosity, shape, density
Factors does NOT affect the solubility of solutes
Temperature, pH and common ion effects
Factors increases the risk of poisoning
Age, accessibility, type of container
Factors that stimulate the release of gastrin from antral G cells
Distention of stomach by food
Famvir
Trmt H zoster
Fat soluble vitamin
ADEK
Femiron
Iron prdt with highest amt of elementary iron
Ferrous fumarate
Greatest amt of elemental iron
Ficks law of diffusion
Length of stagnant layer is inversely proportional to rate of diffusion
Finasteride
BPH
First dose syncope
Minipress, hytrin, cardura
Fixed assets
Fixtures and equipments
Flecainide
Alkalinization of urine increases bioavailability
Flomax
BPH
Fludrocortisone
Corticosteroid with highest mineralocorticoid
Flumazenil
Antagonize toxic effect of BZ overdose
Fluorauracil
Pyrimidine analog – cancer chemotherapy
Fluoxetine
Reuptake inhibitor of serotonin
Folic acid
Good source green vegetables
Folic acid
Green veg, liver and pulses
Folic acid
Should not exceed 0.4mg
Follicular phase
Estrogen
Formaldehyde
Generated by methenamine acts as urinary antiseptic
Formation of m-aminophenol
Decarboxylation of p-aminosalicylic acid
Fortovase
Ref but if room temp ok for 3 months
Foscavir
Renal failure- major toxicity
Free floor system
Predetermine list of medications, prepackaged meds in standardized containers, on the spot inventory
Funding of medicare program
Social security taxes, premiums paid by participant
Furosemide
Loop diuretic
Gabitril
Enhanced activity of GABA
Gabitril
Partial seizure
Garage
Pesticides and petroleum prdts accidental poisoning
Genome
Bacteriophage carries the genetic info
Germicide
Subs that kills microorganisms but not bacterial spores
GITS system
Ditropan XL
Glimepride
Sulfonylurea derivative
Glucagons
Hypoglycemia
Glucagons IV dextrose
Trmt for insulin overdose
Glucocorticoids accdg to half lives
Betamethasone >triamcinolone >hydrocortisone > cortisone
Gluconeogenesis
Synthesis of glucose from sources other than carbohydrates
Glucophage
Lactic acidosis
Glutathione in reduced form
Deficient in a pt with G6PD deficiency
Glycogen phosphorylase
Rate limiting step in glycogenolysis
Glycolipids
Subs that is isolated fr brain and produces fatty acid, galactose and sphingosine upon hydrolysis
Gold compds adverse effects
Diarrhea, abd pain, stomatitis
Gold number
Protective property of colloid
Gram stain
Differences between gram + and gram -
Granulocytopenia
Granulocytes count of 1000 cells/mm3
Guiafenesin
Cough expectorant
Guiafenesin
Active ingredient of Humibid LA
H pylori infection
Omeprazole, amox, clarithromycin
H2O
Highest boiling point
Half life
T1/2 = 0.693
Half life equation of zero order rxn
T1/2=a/2k
Half life- factors affect
Renal insufficiency, change in urinary ph, enzyme inducing drugs
hbA 1/c 6%
Indicates 120mg.cl blood glucose
hbAlc
Stable complex of hemoglobin and glucose, represents an average bld glucose level over 3-4 months and helps in determination of glycemic control
HCTZ
Metablic alkalosis
HCTZ
Hypokalemia, hypercalcemia,hyperglycemia
HCTZ toxicity
Dryness of mouth, thrist, irregulart heart beat, muscle cramps or pain, nausea and weakness
Health brief model
How to prevent illness, how to stick to a proper diet, how to take drugs
Hectorol
Hyperparathyroidism
Hemoglobin
Naturally occurring chelate
Hemoglobin tests
Measure 1 gm of hemoglobin per 1 dL vol of whole blood
Hemolytic anemia
Abnormal destruction of RBC
Hemolytic anemia w/ G6PD deficiency
Co-trimoxazole, dapsone, primaquine
Heparin
Heteropolysaccharide
Hepatic toxicity
Marplan, Nardil
Heptane (antigenic)
Drug + protein
Holoenzyme
Enzyme with its cofactor
Human insulin
Least antigenic in nature
Human insulin
Least immunogenic in nature
Hyaluronic acid
Polysaccharide
Hydration
Process of degradation of ionic compds into cations and anions in a presence of water
Hydrodiuril
Responsible for elevated levels of glucose
Hydrolysis
Degradation of aspirin to salicylic acid and acetic acid in the presence of water
Hyperammonemia
Lactulose, sodium benzoate and sodium phenylacetate
Hyperkalemia
Bradycardia, flaccid paralysis of extremities, paresthesias
Hyperkalemia when used with Captopril
Spironolactone,amiloride,triamterene
Hypersecretion of growth hormone
Gigantism, acromegaly
Hypersensitive to thiazide diuretics
Avoid diazoxide, metolazone, HCTZ
Hypertension
Overdose of sod nitroprusside
Hyperthyroidism sx
Weight loss, high bmr, staring eyes
Hypochronic anemia
Deficiency of iron
Hypothalamus
Controls fxn of anterior pituitary
Hypothyroidism
Increase plasma protein albumin
IgE
Elevated in asthma
IgE
Elevated with asthma & allergic dz
IgE
Principal mediator of type 1 hypersensitivity
IgE
Asthma
IgG
Antibody protection for fetus
Ilosone
Cholestatic hepatitis
IM
Avoid with heparin
Imitrex
Migraine
Increase bleeding Coumadin therapy
Cefamandole, cimetidine, chlorpropamide
Increase chances of essential htn
High salt intake, hyperlipidemia, obesity
Indocin
Nsaid trmt ductus arterious in premature infants
Infants dose
age in months x adult dose
Inflammation of lips
Side effect of isotretinoin
Ingram’s regimen
Combo of antrhralin + UVA
Enzymes and thus formation of m-RNA
Actinomycin, Mitomycin, Rifampicin
Inhibition of diphydrofolate reductase and dihydropteroate synthetase
Bacteriostatic action of Cotrimoxazole
Inhibitor of cholinesterase enzyme
Physostigmine, neostigmine
Insect control chemicals
Insecticides, repellants, attractants
Instability of emulsion
Creaming, breaking, phase inversion
Insulin lispro
Rapid onset of action and shortest duration
Insulin lispro
Onset of action 5-15 min
Insulin lispro
Safely mix with Humulin N, U and LA
Insulin purity
Measured by content of Proinsulin
Interact with Tagamet
Maalox, ketoconazole, theophylline
Intrinsic factor
Absorption of vit b12
Invariant
System with gas, liq, solid has a degree of freedom
Inventory of schedule 2
Every 2 years
Inventory turnover rate, net sales to inventory, nest sales to networking capital
Efficiency of rx
Ion dipole or ion induced dipole force
Bond between NH3 and CO2
IPA model hmo
Highest percentage of HMO membership
IPA reimbursement
Capitation and discounted FFS
Ipratropium
Atropine like drug
Iron
Reticuloendothelial cells, liver hepatocytes and apoferritin are important iron storage sites,
IUD
Mechanical = least risk of pregnancy
K phos neutral
Take a tablet with a full glass of water at meals and bedtime
K phos original
Increases antibacterial activity of methenamine
Ketone
Oxidation of 2ndary alcohol
Killed vaccine
Diphtheria
Kitchen
Late morning accidents happen
l. leichmani
Microbial assay of vit b12 –test organism
Lactose
Disaccharide
Lactulose
Indicated for reducing elevated bld conc of ammonia in blood
Lanoxin
Trmt atrial flutter, fib, CHF
Lantus
Duration 24 hours
LDL
Risk factor assoc with atherosclerosis
Legionnaire’s dz
Erythromycin
Leucovorin Ca
Trmt –methotrexate overdose
Leukocytes
Source of production of alfa interferon
Lexxel
Enalapril, felodipine
Lidocaine side effects
Malignant hyperthermia, CNS toxicity
Ligase
Catalyses the coupling of 2 molecules of nucleotides to form DNA
Lipohypertrophy
Rotate sites of insulin injection
Liquidity
Rx ability to meet its current liability
Live attenuated vaccine
MMR
Liver
Major biotransformation site of drugs in humans
Loading dose
Initial dose of a drug thru IV bolus to achieve desirable plasma conc at once
Lophotrichous
Bacteria with 2 or more flagella
Losartan
Angiotensin receptor antagonist
Lovastatin
Bld cholesterol lowering drugs HMG COA
Lovenox
Beware to pt’s w/ heparin sensitivity
Luteinizing hormone
Initiates testosterone synthesis in leydig cells of testis, induces ovulation in females, stimulates synthesis of progesterone and estrogen in the corpus luteum
Lyme dz
Ticks, id by presence of annular skin lesions found in thighs and buttocks, assoc with cvs and neurological complications
Lyophilic
Interaxn between dispersed phase and dispersion medium
Lyophilization
Removal of water by method of sublimation from the product after it is frozen
Lysosome
Digestive organ of cell
Lysozyme
Helps in the removal of damaged cell, contains bactericidal agent that kills bacteria before it damages the cell
Mandelic acid
Metabolic product of nor adrenaline
Mafenide
2nd and 3rd degree burns
Mannitol
Flavoring agent 4 chewable tab
Mannitol
Osmotic diuretic- trmt of cerebral edema
Mantoux test
Identify the immunity of TB pts
Max allowable cost
Pd by 3rd party to rx when drug is available from more than 1 source
May precipitate SLE like syndrome
Procainamide, hydralazine
Mean
N x p
Measure Glomerular Filtration rate
Inulin and Creatinine
Measures rx liquidity
Acid test, current ratio, inv to its net working capital
MEC
Min conc of drug at rc site to initiate pharmacological action
Mechanisms of resistance against chemo agents caused by bacteria
Mutation, Transformation , Conjugation
Meclizine
Vertigo
Medicaid program
Medically indigent
Megace
Anorexia
Megace
Anorexia in AIDS 800mg/day
Megestrol acetate
Appetite stimulant
Memory
Identify and respond immediately to foreign substance w/c it was exposed previously
Meningitis
N meningitis, H influenzae, S pneumonia
Mephyton
Vit K deficiency
Mesalamine
Inhibiting prostaglandin synthesis
Mesna
Trmt for cyclophosphamide induced H cystitis
Mesnex(mesna)
Na-2mercaptoethane sulfonate
Messenger rna
Carries genetic info from dna to cytosol for protein synthesis
Meta chloronitrobenzene
Chlorination of nitrobenzene
Meta isomer
Nitration of benzaldehyde
Metabolic acidosis
-occurs due to loss of bicarbonate,hypokalemia
Methimazole
Thyroid drug- avoid for OB
Methotrexate
Folic acid antagonist
Methyldopa
Positive coombs test
Mevastatin
HMG coa reductase enzyme
Micardis
Angiotensin II receptor blocker
Microemulsion
-mean diameter of droplet generally lies between 2,50,000 A to 5,00,000 A
Millard reaction
Amine drugs in the presence of lactose diluent
Milliequivalent wgt
wgt in mg / eq wt
Minizide
Prazosin + polythiazide
Minoxidil
Hypertrichosis
Mitochondria
Host of kreb’s cycle
Mitochondria
Not found in bacteria but present in humans
Mobic avoid
Pt’s hypersensitivity to aspirin
Moisture
Physical factor for growth of bacteria
Molarity
1 gram molecular wgt of solute in 1 liter of solution
Moles
wgt in grams
Monoclonal antibodies
-derived from single cell line
Monoclonal antibody
Lab produced clone of cultured cells that make 1 specific antibody to a specific epitope
Morphine overdose
Cold and clammy skin; respiratory depression, convulsion
Mucomyst
Ifex induced H cystitis
Mucomyst-10
Acetaminophen antidote
Multiple sclerosis
Betaseron, lioresal, avonex
Muscle spasm & rigidity of skeletal muscle
d-tubocurarine, succinylcholine, dantrolene
Mutarotation
Spontaneous isomerization of 2 stereoisomers in aqueous soln that causes specific rotation
Mycelex troche
Oral candidiasis
Mycostatin pastilles
Oral candidiasis
n-acetylcysteine
Antidote for acetaminophen toxicity
Naturally occurring gums
Acacis, tragacanth
Negative catalyst
Ascorbic acid, sodium sulfite, sod metabisulfite
Neonatal tetany
Temporary transcient hypoparathyroidism
Neonates
Use of sodium nitroprusside shld be strictly restricted
Net profit to net worth
Best indicator of rx profitability
Neutrophils
Guards the skin and mucous membrane against infections
Nilandron
Prostate cancer
Nimodipine
Cerebral spasm
Nimotop
CCB subarachnoid hemorrhage
Nitroprusside
Iv preferable route
Nizoral + Hismanal/ seldane/ Claritin
Produce cardiac toxicity
Nolvadex
Antagonizes the action of estrogen
Nolvadex
Estrogen receptor antagonist
Non compliance
Meds too costly,age >60, don’t know importance of meds
Non compliance results
Age over 65, drug induces side effects, fear of drug dependency
Non specific autoimmunity
SLE, SJOGREN syndrome
Nonsedative antihistamines
Zyrtec, seldane, Hismanal
Norvasc
Least incidence of reflex stimulation of the SNS
Novolog
Fastest onset of action and shortest duration of action
Nucleotide is a building block of
Nucleic acid
Octreotide
Inhibits secretion of growth hormone
Ocusert pilo 20 delivers
20 mcg of pilocarpine per hour for 7 days
Open-ended question
Verbal communication
Oral candidiasis
Spranox, Mycelex, nystatin
Oral candidiasis
Vanceril
Organ specific autoimmunity
Myasthenia gravis, graves dz, hashimoto’s thyroiditis, MS addisons dz, ulcerative colitis
Organ transplantation immunosuppressive agents
Imuran, neural sandimune
Orthostatic hypotension
Elderly more susceptible due to decline baroreceptor function
Osmosis
2 compartments are separated by a semipermeable membrane and only solvent molecules can pass from 1 compartment to other compartments
Otitis media
H influenza , S pneumonia
Ou
Both eyes
Oxidative phosphorylation
Release of energy from energy rich molecules such as glucose and fatty acid occurs in mitochondria
Oxygen transport capacity
Rate limiting step in synthesis of RBC
Oxytocin
Contraction of uterine muscles
P and T committee
Review adverse drug reaction
P colitis
Vancomycin, metronidazole TCN
P hydroxyl benzene sulfonamide
Major metabolic product of sulfanilamide
Paget’s dz of the bone
Alendronate, etidronate, tiludronate
Pancrelipase enzyme
Swallow the whole caps with meals or snacks
Pancytopenia
Blood dyscracia that affect all 3 blood lines
Parasympatholytic agent
Demecarium, homatropine
Parathyroid
Regulates the mobilization of calcium between bone and blood
Parietal cells
Active part in secretion of acid in the stomach
Parlodil (bromocrptine)
Parkinsons longest duration of action
Peliosis hepatic
Adverse effect of anabolic steroids
Penicillin V
Acid resistant property
Pentam 300
Trmt P carini Pneumonia
Pentamidine
P carini pneumonia
Pentobarbital
Short acting barbiturate
Pentoxifylline
Peripheral vascular dz
Peptide bond
Amino acids are covalently joined in protein
Permax
Parkinson
Permax high dose
Cardiac arrhythmia
Permethrine
Scabicidal agent
PGD2
Prostaglandin, potent mediator of asthma attacks
PGE 2
Prostaglandin –gastric mucosal protection
Pharmacy times
Primary literature
Phase 2 drug metabolism
Glucoronidation conjugation
Phase 3
Incl extensive clinical trials in human
Phenylephrine
Nasal decongestant
PhosLo
Hyperphosphatemia
Phoslo
Hyperphosphatemia
Photochemical degradation
Degradation of riboflavin by light
Phototaxis
Moving of bacteria away from the light
Physical id of tablets and capsules
Identidex, red and blue book
Physical property of gel
Swelling, syneresis, aging
Physostigmine
Acute atropine poisoning
PKU
-dz characterized by mental abnormalities
Pkw
Pka + pka
Plasmids
Small and circular extrachromosomal DNA molecules that carry genetic information for future generations in bacteria
Plastic flow
Bingham bodies
Plavix
Myocardial infarction
Plicamycin, valproic acid, moxalactam
Avoid Toradol
Podiatrist
DPM
Polycythemia vera
Increase of RBC
Polymorphism
Subs that may exist in more than 1 crystalline form
Polymorphism
Characteristic of solid subs to exhibit more than 1 crystalline or amorphous form
Posicor (mibefradil)
Htn
Potassium chloride
Highest meq amt of K
PPO
Grps of hospital and physicians that are ready to provide serv to employers, insurance providents or other 3rd party carriers on the basis of fee for serv, subscriber can negotiate the price of fees, freedom of choice is limited to a # of hosp and physicians
PPU
Antihyperthyroid safe to OB pts
Pravachol
Anytime
Prazosin
1st dose syncope
Precision
Reproducibility of results
Precose
Alpha glucosidase inhibitor
Precose
Diabetes
Precose, glucophage, rezulin
Change of hypoglycemia is least when maintained
Precursor for 5 HT
Tryptophan
Precursors for vitamin D
Ergosterol, 7 dehydrocholesterol, dihydrotachysterol
Pregnancy, hypoalbuminemia, uremia
Affects protein binding of drugs
Premarin
ERT- menopause
Presence of OH ions
Sweet taste of compd
Priftin
Inhibits DNA dependent RNA polymerase
Primary literature
Largest and most current information sources
Primary taste
Saline, sweet, bitter
Prime vendor system
Order prdts from 1 wholesaler w/small % fee
Principle storage of glycogen
Skeletal muscle, liver
Prinivil
Ace- doc for pt w/ liver dysfunction
Probenecid
May competitively inhibit the renal tubular secretion of Methicillin, methotrexate,dapsone
Probenecid may elevate serum conc
Methotrexate, retrovir, pantothenic acid
Procainamide
Class 1 a arrhythmic agent
Procainamide
C/I in M. gravies
Prodrug
Inactive drug becomes active thru metabolism
Prodrug
Dolobid
Prokaryotic
Cells with NO nucleus
Prolactin
Lactation in postpartum
Proscar
Agonist of 5 alpha azo-reductase enzymes
Prospective payment
Reimbursement to the hospital in advance, with a specific rate based upon diagnosis pt
Prospective payment system
Diagnostic related grp services, predetermined rate of per day costs of hospital, predetermine rate per episode of illness
Prospective reimbursement
Pt pays full predetermined amt to provider at the beginning of each month
Prostaglandin E2
Active part in the production of mucosa in the stomach
Protamine sulfate
Overdose of heparine antidote
Protein binding
Makes drugs inactive
Protein deficient malnutrition
Kwashiorkor, marasmus
Protrombin time
Effectiveness of coumadin therapy
Proxemic
Nonverbal form of communication
Pseudo 1st order
Decomposition of ethylacetate in presence of water
Pseudo first order
CH3COOC2H5 + OH ---high conc- CH3CHOOH + C2H5OH
Pseudoplastic flow
-viscosity of the flow generally decreses w/ increase in rate of shears,
Pseudoplastic flow
Shear thinning system
Pulmonary dysfunction
Bleomycin, Amiodarone, Nitrofurantoin
Pulmonary dysfunction
Bleomycin, parlodel pentam 300
PVT TIM HALL
Essential amino acids
Pyrethrin
Acts as a contact poison that disturbs the parasites nervous system
Pyruvate
End product of glycolysis in the cell with mitochondria
Quality assurance & control test
Sterility test, particulate matter evaluation, pyrogen test
Questran, colestipol, seldane
Avoid in rezulin therapy
Quinaglute
Reduce lanoxin and coumadin
Quinidine side effects
Tinnitus, nausea, vertigo, vision
Quinidine sulfate
Highest amt of quinidine alkaloid
Quininide
Class 1 antiarryhtmic – na channel blocker
Raglan antiemetic effect
Inhibiting stimulation of chemoreceptor trigger zone, increasing GI motility, Increasing the rate of GI emptying
Raise blood serum conc of theophylline
Allopurinol, cimetidine, cipro
Range
Highest – lowest
Range of particle size of colloidal dispersion
0.5 to 1.0 nanomicron
Rate of hydrolysis depends on
pH of soln, temp
Rate of sedimentation independent
Of lipophilic nature of particles
Receptors assoc with emesis
H1, D2, 5HT3
Receptors involved in production of HCl in the stomach
Muscarinic, Histamine, Gastrin
Reduced solubility of alcohol
MW of alcohol increases
Refludan
Heparin induced thrombocytopenia
Renal tubular secretion
Probenecid, PCN, chlorothiazide
Retrospective DUR method
Review performed after pt receives med
Retrospective DUR study
# of drugs per pt, # of doses of drugs per pt, cost of drugs per pt
Retrospective payment
-depends on hospital costs and hospital charges, pymt increases as the cost of hosp increases, amt of pymt generally depends on the actual service provided by the hospital during the pt’s stay
Retrovir
1st approved for HIV
Rezulin
Diabetes
Rho gam
Rh – mother with Rh + infant
Rideal walker coefficient of disinfectant
Dilution of disinfectant killed microbes in 5 to 7.5 min. silution of phenol-killed microbes in 5-7.5
rifabutin
Reduce by 75% when coadmin w/ Kaletra
Rifadin
Reddish coloration of urine, sweat, sputum and tears
Rifamate
Monitor serum transaminase levels
Ritalin SR
Attention deficit syndrome
Rna forms
Trna,mrna, rrna
S aureus
Causing 80% or more of bone infxn
S pneumonia
Causative agent for community acquired pneumonia
S. viridan
Normal flora of the human resp tract
Salicylate
Ringing or buzzing in the ear
Salmonella, E coli
Organisms found in normal flora of guts
Sc
Most suitable route for insulin admin
Schedule 2
Fentanyl, amohetamine,methylphenidate
Schedule 3- partial dispensing
6 mos
Schedule I
High potential for abuse
Scurvy
Bleeding of gums, hemorrhagem retarded healing
Secondary htn
Hyperaldosteronism, pheochromocytoma, cushing syndrome
Seroquel
Check for cataract formation
Serum K conc
Sodium polysterene sulfonate
Serzone
Depression
Shape of frequency of distribution
Bell shape , skewed shape, U shape
Sicle cell anemia
Hemolytic anemia with abnormal hemoglobin
Sign for grave’s dz
Fast heartbeat, soft skin, high basal metabolic rate
Signs and symptoms of drug induced aplastic anemia
Fatigue, bruising, frank bleeding
Silica
Used as dessicant in rx preparation
Simvastation
HMG COA
SLE
Butterfly shaped rash
Small intestine
Primary stie for orally administered drug, more permeable -> intestine epithelium
Smoke test, dop test, microbial test
Test used to identify laminar flow efficiency and quality of sterilization
Smoker’s dz
Emphysema, chronic bronchitis, peripheral vascular disease
SMZ/TMP
Abx of choice for pregnant UTI
Sodium bicarbonate
Increases excretion of Phenobarbital
Sodium bicarbonate
Antacid absorbs into systemic circulation and can produce systemic alkalosis
Sodium bicarbonate
Increases – renal clearance of phenobarb
Sodium bisulfite
Stabilize epi soln
Sodium carboxymethylcellulose
Exhibits pseudoplastic flow
Sodium lactate
Cardiotoxic effect of quinidine reduced
Sodium polysterene sulfonate
Removal of excess K from blood
Sodium restricted diet – htn pt
Sodium ions hold water molecules which results in increase blood volume
Sodium thiosulfate
Given by IV to detoxify cyanomethemoglobin produced by admin of sodium nitrate
Soluble
1 part of solute requires 10 to 30 parts of solvent
Solution
Degradation of PCN G Procaine is highest
SP2 hybridization
CH2=CH2
Specific gravity
Weight of the substance
Spf (skin protection factor)
5 or more but less than 14
Sphingomyelin
Building block of membrane of nerve tissue
Spingosine
Not hydrolyzed prodt of lecithin
Spironolactone
Aldosterone antagonist
SRSA – slow release substance of anaphylaxis –resp for bronchospasm
Accolate, zyflo, Intal
SSRI w/ depression
Effexor, paxil prozac
Staff model HMO
Healthcare facilities,employed physicians
Standard deviation
Deviation of data from its mean
Starch
Disintegrant
Stationary phase
Growth of bacteria remains constant
Status epilepticus
50% dextrose soln, diazepam, phenytoin
Steatorrhea
Loss of lipid, essential fatty acid and lipid soluble vitamin in feces, inhibition of secretion of pancreatic juice fr the pancreas, absorption of vitamins such as vit c, thiamine and riboflavin are not affected
Sterilization of pharmaceuticals
Ethylene oxide, formaldehyde
Stimate
Von Willibrands dz
Stop or nonsense codon
UAG, UGA, UAA
Sublimation
Solid to vapor state
Sublimation
Transfer of mol fr solid phase to vapor
Sucrose
Oligosaccharide
Sular (nisoldipine)
External coat with an internal core of drug
Sulfasalazine, Olsalazine, Mesalamine
Avoid for pt’s hypersensitive to Mesalamine
Sulfonamide
Ineffective with pus formation
Sulfonamide
Avoid with G6PD
Sweat test
Accurate diagnostic test for cystic fibrosis
Sx of BPH
Caused by pressure exerted by the prostate gland in urethra
Symmetrel
Parkinsonism
Symptom of hypoglycemia
Confusion, difficulty in conc, sweating
Synercid
VREF bacteremia
Syphilis
Dx agent – colloidal mercury
Syphilis
T pallidum
T lymphocyte
Primary cell type resp for long term effects of asthma
Table sugar
Not recommended for hypoglycemia
Tablet manufacturing problems
Capping, mottling, picking
Tachycardia, consusionm low BP,sweat
Trmt dextrose, IV glucose
Talwin NX
Pentazocine and naloxone hcl
Tamoxifen
Estrogen receptor antagonist
Taxol therapy
Pretreatment – corticosteroid, diphenhydramine, H2 antagonist
Taxotere
Initiating therapy values to be obtained
Tazorac topical cream
Psoriasis, acne
Tegretol
Trigeminal neuralgia
Temazepam and lorazepam
Preferred BZ for elderly -> no phase 1 rxn
Temp, radiation , presence of catalyst
Influence of rate of oxidation
Tenoretic
Atenolol , Chorthalidone
Teratogenic drugs
Finasteride, trietinoine, lithium carbonate
Terbutaline
Uterine relaxant for women in labor
Tertiary alcohol
2 methyl 2 propranolol
Test used to find out potency of disinfectants
Rideal walker test
Tetra iodothyronine
Activates in fxn of thyroid gland
Tetrahedral
Molecular geometry of a CH4 (methane) molecule
Therapeutic equivalence
Structurally different chemicals produce the same clinical results
Thiopental sodium
Iv short term anesthetic
Thioridazine
Pigmented retinopathy
Thixothropy
Converts soln fr a gel and back
Thrombocytopenia
Adv eff w/ prolonged use of Amrinone
Thromboxane A2
Aggregation of platelets
Thymus gland
Generate mature T cell
Thyroid ¼ grain
16 mg
Thyroid hormone deficiency
Myxedema, cretinism,
Thyroid hormone deficiency disorder
Cretinism, myxedema, goiter
Ticlid, asa, plavix
Inhibit aggregation of platelets
Tigan
Control n/v
Tigan
Avoid in pt’s with Reye’s syndrome
Tonocard
Adv eff blood dyscracia, pulmonary fibrosis, renal failure
Toprol XL
Controlled release pallets formulation
Toradol
Avoid taking antivert
Toradol
Should not be given for more than 5 days
Toradol
Ketorolac tromethamine
Torfranil
TCA trmt for nocturnal enuresis
Total energy
Calculate BMR, Thermic effect of food, physical activity
Trans
Opposite side
Transfer of drug fr stomach into blood stream
-
-
drug crosses the cell barrier by passive or active transfer mechanism
Tranxene SD
Anxiety
Tranylcyrpromine
Shld not be used with SSRI
TRF
Release stimulated by any fall in lefel of thyroid hormone
Triple point
3 phases exist in equilibrium with one another
Troglitazone
Greatest risk for hepatotoxicity
Type 1 borosilicate glass
Most chemically resistant or least leachable
Type 1 hypersensitivity rxn
Pollen, grasses
Type 2 hypersensitivity
Hemolytic dz of a newborn in Rh negative mother with Rh + fetus
Type 3 hypersensitivity rxn
RA, lupus erythematosus, sjogren syndrome
Type 5 hypersensitivity
Graves dz
Unitary elasticity
Relative change in revenue is same as relative change in price
Uracil
Pyrimidine base found only in rna
Uric acid
End product of purine catabolism
Urinary alkanizers increase excretion
Methotrexate, salicylate, methenamine
Urso
Biliary cirrhosis
Urticaria
Allergic skin rxn –wheel formation
Vancomycin
Methicillin resistant infection
Vancomycin
Cl. Difficile
Vanillylmadelic acid
Metabolite product of epinephrine and norepi
Vasculits angiitis
Patchy inflammation of the walls of small blood vessels
Vasodilators adverse effects
Edema, palpitation , weight gain
Vasotec
Help pt on diabetic treatments
Vibramycin
Trmt SIADH
Videx
More prolonged duration of oaction than retrovir with least bone marrow suppression property
Vioxx
Nsaid with least GI effects
Vit a
Night blindness
Vit b1
Beri beri
Vit b12
Pernicious anemia
Volume of distribution
P/Cp
Water sensitive prdts, diluent
Diabasic calcium phosphate, calcium sulfate
Water soluble
B C
Weight variation, disintegration, dissolution
Test to evaluate tablet dosage form
Wheezing
Clinical hallmark of asthma
Wholesale & retail $
American druggist blue book, drug topics red book
Wilson’s disease
Disturbance of copper metabolism
Working capital
Diggerence between current asset and current liabilities of rx
Xerogels
Gelatin sheets, acacia tears, starch grains
Xerostomia
Causes dental caries, difficulty in swallowing meds, excessive salivation
Zanaflex
Alpha 2 rec agonist
Zaroxolyn
Suffer from electrolyte loss
Zemplar
Hyperparathyroidism
Zemuron
Neuromuscular blocking agent
Zero order
Kinetic rxn –rate of rxn independent fr conc
Zero order
Rate of release of drug from gastrointestinal therapeutic system
Zestoretic
Avoid sulfonamide allergy
Zofran
Chemo induced n/v
Zoladex
Prostate carcinoma
Zomig
5HT receptor agonist
Zydis
Olanzapine
Zyflo
5-lipoxygenase inhibitor
Zyvox
Reversible nonselective MAO inhibitor
Warfarin
Increase levels DC3AMPS
Warfarin
Decrease levels –BRAGG