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32 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
what are your first steps in assessing red eye?
1. assess pain,
2. visual acuity,
3. type of eye discharge,
4. pupillary abnormalities
what are the si/sx of bacterial conjunctivitis?
1. minimal pain, no vision changes
2. purulent discharge
3. no pupillary changes
4. rarely preauricular adenopathy (only c/ Neisseria gonorrhoeae)
what are causes of bacterial conjuncitivits?
1. S. pneumo
2. Staph spp.
3. N. gonorrhoeae
4. Chlamydia trachomatis (in neonates and sexually active adults)
what is tx for bacterial conjunctitivits?
(purulent discharge, rare preauricular adenopathy)
1. topical sufacetamide or
2. erythromycin
what are si/sx of viral conjuncitivits?
1. minimal pain, no vision changes
2. watery discharge
3. no pupillary changes
4. often preauricular adenopathy
5. often pharyngitis (adenovirus)
what are causes of viral conjucntivitis?
1. m/c is adenovirus
2. HSV
3. varicella
4. EBV
5. influenza
6. echovirus
7. coxsackie virus
what is tx for viral conjunctivitis?
1. no tx required
2. self-limiting dz
what are si/sx of allergic conjuncitivitis?
1. no pain, vision, or pupil changes
2. marked pruritus
3. b/l watery eyes
what are the causes of allergic conjunctivitis?
1. allergy
2. hay fever
what is tx for allergic conjunctivitis?
1. antihistamine or
2. steroid drops
what are si/sx of hyphema?
1. pain, no vision changes
2. no discharge, no pupil changes
3. blood in anterior chamber of eye, fluid level noted
what is the cause of hyphema?
(blood in anterior chamber of eye, fluid level noted)
1. blunt ocular trauma
what is tx of hyphema?
blood in anterior chamber of eye, fluid level noted
tx=eye patch to decrease movement
what are si/sx of xerophthalmia?
1. minimal pain, vision blurry, no pupillary changes, no discharge
2. Bitot's spots visble on exam (desquamated, conjunctival cells)
what are Bitot's spots?
1. desquamated, conjunctival cells
2. seen in xerophthalmia
what are causes of xerophthalmia?
1. sjogren's disease or
2. vit A def
what is tx for xerophthalmia?
1. artificial tears
2. vit A
how do you dx xerophthalmia?
1. dx by Schirmer test=place filter paper over eyelid, if not wet in 15 min=dx
2. keratoconjunctivitis sicca (sjogren's disease)
what are si/sx of corneal abrasion?
1. painful, with photophobia
2. no pupil changes
3. watery discharge
4. dx by fluorescein stain to detect areas of corneal defect
what are causes of corneal abrasion?
1. direct trauma to eye (finger, stick, etc.)
what is tx for corneal abrasion?
1. abx
2. eye patch
3. examine daily
what are si/sx of keratitis?
1. pain, photophobia, tearing
2. decreased vision
3. herpes shows classic dendritic branching on fluorescein stain
4. pus in anterior chamber (hypopyon) is a grave sign
what are the causes of keratitis?
1. adenovirus
2. HSV (shows classic dendritic branching on fluorescein stain)
3. Pseudomonas
4. S. pneumoniae
5. Staphylococcus spp.
6. Moraxella (often in contact lens wearers)
what is tx for keratitis?
1. emergency!!
2. immediate Ophthalmology consult
3. tx=topical vidarabine for herpes
what is uveitis?
1. inflamm of the iris, ciliary body and/or choroid
what are si/sx of uveitis?
(inflamm of the iris, ciliary body and/or choroid)
1. pain
2. miosis
3. photophobia
4. flare and cells seen in aqueous humor on slit-lamp examination
what are causes of uveitis?
1. seen in seronegative spondyloarthropathy
2. inflammatory bowel disease
3. sarcoidosis
4. infxn (CMV, syphilis)
what is tx for uveitis?
1. tx underlying dz
what are si/sx of angle-closure glaucoma?
1. severe pain
2. decreased vision, halos around lights
3. fixed mid-dilated pupil
4. eyeball firm to pressure
what is the cause of angle-closure glaucoma?
1. decreased aqueous humor outflow via canal of Schlemm
2. mydriatics can also cause
where do you find severe eye pain, decreased vision and fixed mid-dilated pupils?
Angle closure glaucoma!
d/t decreased aqueous humor outlfow via canal of Schlemm
how do you tx angle-closure glaucoma?
1. emergency
2. IV mannitol and acetazolamide
3. laser iridotomy for cure