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108 Cards in this Set

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recommendations of Assesment Centers
use exercises that assess specific dimensions
standardize
role player seeks elicit (uitlokken) behaviors
let participant know about dimensions
Assessor rec,: use FOR, focus on quality, use psychologist
Dimensions rec: clear job related, niet met elkaar te vergelijken dimensies
Frame of Reference (FOR)
Training die 'accuracy' van de supervisor verbeterd bij Performance Mangaement System
Skills that assessors should gain:
-knowledge of organisation&job
-assessment techniques of dimensions/ typical behavior
-ass. dimensions & how they relate to job performance
-techniques for reccord/classificate behavior, how to use forms
-evaluation, rating & data integration
-objective & consistent behavior as role-player
-feedbach
Situation Judgment Test
Gaat om hypothetische gebeurtenissen
-meerkeuze vragen
-low fidelity
+goedkoop/makkelijk
+goede voorspeller job performance
- weten niet waarom JST werkt
Business Game
'live'case- role play. measures cognitive complexity
In-Basket Test
Simulates aspects of managers position
+direct observation in context van job relevante situaties maar toch standardized
+ discriminates well
-Does behavior in in-basket reflect job behavior?
Leaderless Group Discussion
beoordeeld agressiveness, persuasiveness/selling ability, oral communications, self confidence, resistance to stress, energy level, interpesonal contact
-Val. .38
-sprake van training effect
specifications managerial selection
-individual vs group exercises
-bandwith
-fidelity
-task specificity
-necessary experience
-task type
-mode of delivery & response
Situational questions in interviews
future-oriented questions. maakt gebruik van behaviorally anchored rating en is gebaseerd op job analyses dat gebruik maakt van the critival inicident method
structure of interview
4 dimensies: question consitency evaluation standardization, question sophistication, rapport building
voordelen structured interview
-meer valide
-verlaagt het verschil tussen racial groups
-sterker bij de rechtbank
-meer job related
cognitive inteview bias
prior info zorgt voor self-fulfilling prophecy
behavior interview bias
prior info over sollicitant zorgt voor gedrag bij interviewer dat de prior impression bevestigd.
Bias in interviewer decision-making
-expectancy effect
-confirmatory information seeking
-primacy effect/firts impression
-proto/stereotyping
-similar-to-me-bias
-negative info bias
-contract effect
-halo effect
-info overload/selective attention
-behavior biases (self-fulfilling prophecy)
Mc Gill's four Major interview findings
-Interviewer develops stereotype of good candidate
-Bias early in interview wat zorgt voor +/- besluit
-Interviewer wordt meer beinvloed door negatieve informatie dan positieve info (geneigd positief persoon sneller aan te nemen na aantal -)
-Interviewer zoekt naar bevestiging van de hypothese
Workforce planning
an effort to anticipate future business and environmental demands on an organization and to meet the HR requirments dedicated by these conditions
Talent Inventory
manier om overzicht te krijgen van huidige resources (SKA's, promotional potential etc.) aan de hand van de volgende vragen:
Who included?
What information?
How to obtain info?
How record info?
How report info?
How often updated?
How info protected?
Time-lapse data
average intervals between the offer and the acceptance of the job
Positive organisation images might influence candidates to apply because
-vergroot self-esteem candidate (trots)
-positive image implies other desirable attributes
-makes applicant more receptive to info organisation
Yield ratios
precentage of applicants from a recruitment source that make it to the next stage of selection process (ratios of leads> invites>interviews>offers>hires
Gross-Cost per Hire
Total cost of requiting (TCOR)/number individuals hires (NH)
-TCOR bestaat uit: staff costs+operational costs+overhead
Sources for recruiting (formal/informal)
Formal:
-advertising
-employment agencies
-educational institution
Informal:
walk-ins
write-ins
intracompany transfer
employee referrals
ways to reduce faking on interview
-vragen naar beliefs about faking
-vragen of ze antwoorden willen toelichten (elaborate)
-vertellen dat er een lie scale is
-vragen stellen die geferificeerd kunnen worden
Weighted application Blanks
identificeerd welke aspecten welk gewicht moet krijgen bij een selectie (bijv. hoe belangrijk is previous experience)
-cross-validated
-grote N
-goed voor bedrijven met veel werknemers die vergelijkbaar werk doen en informatie beschikbaar is
Voorwaarden voor recommendations
-genoeg job-relevante situaties geobserveerd?
-bereid open en eerlijk te zijn? (ontbreekt vaak negatieve info)
-able to express evaluations in an interpretable way?
doe verder: consistency checks, is info relevant?
Information gatherd from recommendations
-employment & educational history
-evaluation of character/personality/interpersonal competence
-job performance ability
-willingnes to retire
Goal screening & selection
capatalize on individual differences to selet persons who possess the greates amount of particular characteristics judged important for job succes
Social factor of interviewing
-interviewer-applicant overeenkomsten hoog dan: hogere beoordeling. Om dit te voorkomen gebruik structured interview en veel variatie in interviewteam
Tips interviewee
gebruik nonverbale cues, geef consistence volledige antwoorden, takes responsibility for past failures
Interview
Doel: verduilijken van informatie, checken van informatie die alleen face-to-face te verkrijgen is (spraak)
Factoren Interview
-social/interpersonal
-cognitive
-individual differences
-structure
-use of alternative media
CAT
vorm van computer based training waarbij bij een goed antwoord de volgende vraag moeilijker wordt en bij een fout antwoord het niveau later wordt. op welk punt is 50% goed?
Behavior consistency method
manier van evalueren van work experience
-beschrijven van Major Achievement van behavior dimensies
-beoordeling op schalen ontworpen door SME's
-val .45
Evaluation of training and experience
-behavior consistency method
-accomplishment record
accomplishment record
manier van evalueren van training&experience
-indentify important dimensions of job performance
-develop principle & scales for rating achievements
-ask applicants to describe major accomplishments
-rate applicants achievements on anchored rating scales
Honesty test
soorten:
-polygraphs
-overt integrity tests .41
-personality-oriented measures .41
-conditional reasoning
Overt integrity test
Honesty test die bestaat uit
-testen van attitudes toward different forms of dishonesty
-admission of illegal activities
Personality-oriented measures
Honesty test. predictor of variety of couterproductive behaviors such as concientiousnes/socialization
accomplishment record
manier van evalueren van training&experience
-indentify important dimensions of job performance
-develop principle & scales for rating achievements
-ask applicants to describe major accomplishments
-rate applicants achievements on anchored rating scales
conditional reasoning
Honesty test
Doel: achterhalen van onderliggend biases&preferences door op het oog traditionele inductive-reasoning problemen te laten oplossen
Problemen Honesty test
-need more knowledge about construct validity
-women score > than men
-older score >> than younger
-may block individual with bad record
-possibility of answer distortion
biographical information blanks
goal: predict succes in particular type of work
-life history items, present values, attitudes, interests..
-does item pertain to historical efvents that may have shaped a persons behavior and identity?
realistic job preview
een realistische job preview zorgt voor minder applications maar ook voor minder turn over
Personality-oriented measures
Honesty test. predictor of variety of couterproductive behaviors such as concientiousnes/socialization
Forecasting workforce supply
supply of human resources relates more to conditions inside the orga (bijv. age/turnover/retirement)
conditional reasoning
Honesty test
Doel: achterhalen van onderliggend biases&preferences door op het oog traditionele inductive-reasoning problemen te laten oplossen
Forecasting workforce demand
depends ond the behaviors of business factors (bijv. sales/product volume)
Problemen Honesty test
-need more knowledge about construct validity
-women score > than men
-older score >> than younger
-may block individual with bad record
-possibility of answer distortion
biographical information blanks
goal: predict succes in particular type of work
-life history items, present values, attitudes, interests..
-does item pertain to historical efvents that may have shaped a persons behavior and identity?
accomplishment record
manier van evalueren van training&experience
-indentify important dimensions of job performance
-develop principle & scales for rating achievements
-ask applicants to describe major accomplishments
-rate applicants achievements on anchored rating scales
Forecasting workforce supply
supply of human resources relates more to conditions inside the orga (bijv. age/turnover/retirement)
Forecasting workforce demand
depends ond the behaviors of business factors (bijv. sales/product volume)
Overt integrity test
Honesty test die bestaat uit
-testen van attitudes toward different forms of dishonesty
-admission of illegal activities
Personality-oriented measures
Honesty test. predictor of variety of couterproductive behaviors such as concientiousnes/socialization
conditional reasoning
Honesty test
Doel: achterhalen van onderliggend biases&preferences door op het oog traditionele inductive-reasoning problemen te laten oplossen
biographical information blanks
goal: predict succes in particular type of work
-life history items, present values, attitudes, interests..
-does item pertain to historical efvents that may have shaped a persons behavior and identity?
realistic job preview
een realistische job preview zorgt voor minder applications maar ook voor minder turn over
Forecasting workforce supply
supply of human resources relates more to conditions inside the orga (bijv. age/turnover/retirement)
Forecasting workforce demand
depends ond the behaviors of business factors (bijv. sales/product volume)
Loose labor market
meer vraag naar werk dan aanbod waardoor er veel werkloosheid is en er weinig werknemers mobiliteit is
tight labor market
veel werkaanbod waardoor er weinig werkloosheid is en er een mobile market is
valued-based view of strategy
stappen:
-fundemental values
-design management practises that reflect and embody the values
-use thes to build core capabilities
-invent an strategy that is consistent with the values and uses the capabilities to compete
-senior managements role
hiring insider succesors
+goedkoop/snel
+capatalise on past investments in employees
+bekend met employee
+signal to other employees: effort leeds to promotion
-kans op employment cloning
-employee could lack KSA's
-competitions within organisation
waarom strategic business&workforce plans?
-planning leeds to succes
-sense of control
-beter coping with change
-requires manger to define objectives>
-without objectives control is impossible
Types of data combination/collection strategies
Combination:
-Mechanical:data are combined in preestablished mathematical fashion
-judgemental/clinical: data are combined subjectively
collection:
-mechanical: prescribed rules data collection (G-tes)
-judgemental/clinical: colected data could be differently assesd between applicants (unstructured interview)
Effectiveness of strategies of data collection & combination
Combining methods: Mechanical>Judgemental, maakt niet uit hoe collected
-judgmental methods should be used to complement mechanic methods when collecting
Strategiesof Data collection & combination
Pure clinical (J+J)=OV
behavior rating (J+M)
profile interpretation (M+J)=OV
pure statistical (M+M)=G
clinical composite (JM+J)= OV
mechanical composite (JM+M)= ZG
Multiple regression approach
All predictors weighting adjusted to importance.
voorwaarde: lineair regressie, trait additivity, groot genoeg N. Needs cross-validation
Multiple-cut off approach
approach gebruik als er een minimumstandaard op een of meer vaiabele wordt geeist (kunnen zien bij een piloot)
Unit Weighting
all predictors weighted by 1
+ als N klein is
+ als populatie soms veranderd
+do not consume df
-loss of predictive accuracy
suppressor variables
variabele die geen correlatie heeft met het te voorspellen construct maar wel een postieve correlatie heeft met een voorspeller van het construct.> presentatievaardigheden zijn niet relevant voor administrator maar kunnen bij bepaalde test toch bij beoordeling mee worden genomen
angoff method
manier om cut off score te bepalen:
x aantal raters rate likelyhood that minimal competent candidate would answer item correct
-wat is destandaard van de raters?
expectancy charts
manier om cut off score te bepalen: berekend likelihood of succes criterion performance per predictore score
selection ratio
ratio of the number of available job openings to the total number of applicants
base rate
the proportion of selected applicants who subsequently are judged succesful
Brogden-Cronbach-Gleser model
utility analyses: putting $ value to incremental quality.
-assumptie: linear related to utility
+productivity hoger, labor costs lager
U=(N)(T)(SDy)(Rxy)(Zx)-(N)(C)
why are the dollar gains not as high as predicted with the BCG model?
-Top scorers may turn the offer down
-discrepancy between expected and actual performance scores
-economic factors: discounting, variable costs, taxes
-management is often sceptical
5 camps of unproctored internet testing
-UIT is never acceptable because you're not sure of the identity of the test taker
-UIT is appropriate for some kinds of tests and attempts to define the parameters for acceptable usage (personal development tests)
-prevent cheating before it occurs or stop it as soon as there is evidence that it is occuring
-detect cheating through verification testing or statistical means
-accept IT without extraordinary measures because of its utility
-
PRO Unproctored Internet Testing
+minimizing staffing and other on-site testing costs
+consistency in test admnistration
+positive image of company becaus of the use of cutting-edge technology
+opens the door for new candidates
+cheating not much greater in UIT and proctored testing
CON Unproctored Internet Testing
-many forms of cheating possible
-costs for verification testing
-bad image orga: it turns its head to cheating/endorses it
-you don't know in what kind of environment the candidate takes the test
-security of test materials is low because candidate can see the items before taking test
Staffing Tables
method for forecasting internal labor supply
-graphic representations of the jobs of the organisations. what are the future employment requirments
Markov analysis
method for forecasting internal labor supply
-tracking the pattern of employee movements through various jobs
succession planning
method for forecasting internal labor supply
-process of identifying developing and tracking key individuals for executive positions
management forecasts
method for qualitative forecasting workforce damand:
-opinions of SME
Delphi technique
method for qualitative forecasting workforce damand:
soliciting & summarizing judgments of pre-selected group of experts
Trend analysis
method for qualitative forecasting workforce damand
-find business factor predicting HR needs (links directly to business nature)
internal methods of locating qualified job candidates
-Human resources information systems (HRIS)
-job posting and bidding (lists of employees looking for upgraded positions
Factors determining the relevant labor market
-skills and knowledge required for a job
-level of compensation offered for a job
-reluctance of job seekers ro relocate
-ease of commuting to workplace
-location of job (non/urban)
Mating theory of recruitment
orgas seek out prospective employees & vice versa
advantages of headhunters
+prepares client & candidate for the blind date
+headhunter takes blame
+fill structural holes/connection between different worlds
sequential job search
search broadly to develop poop of possible jobs > search in detail within the pool
application blank pro/con
+lot's of information
+easy way of screening
+check references
+cheap way of recruitment and selection
-socially desirable answers
-different interpretations
-inability to elaborate
-not enough for recruitment and selections
Pro behavior Description interview
+the best predictor of future performance is past performance
+less social desirability
+hoge reliability
+hoge validity
+hoog job related
+high face-validity
Con behavior Description interview
-time consuming to develop
-relevant anchors?
-you are not sure the applicant has experienced the asked situations
-memory biases
advantages of headhunters
+prepares client & candidate for the blind date
+headhunter takes blame
+fill structural holes/connection between different worlds
sequential job search
search broadly to develop poop of possible jobs > search in detail within the pool
application blank pro/con
+lot's of information
+easy way of screening
+check references
+cheap way of recruitment and selection
-socially desirable answers
-different interpretations
-inability to elaborate
-not enough for recruitment and selections
Pro behavior Description interview
+the best predictor of future performance is past performance
+less social desirability
+hoge reliability
+hoge validity
+hoog job related
+high face-validity
Con behavior Description interview
-time consuming to develop
-relevant anchors?
-you are not sure the applicant has experienced the asked situations
-memory biases
Tri-modal approach to suitability diagnosis
tries to combine Character-, Simulation-and Biography-oriented Methods:
-Task and Outcome Demands (IQtest)
-Behavior demands (vlieg test)
-Demands on Character Traits (CV)
steps of Multimodal Interview
tries to overcome the deficiencies of the BDI and the situational interview by combining several different question-formats
-Conversation opener
-Self introduction of the applicant.
-Open Questions
-Choice of Employment or Knowledge about the Profession
-Biography-related Questions
-Realistic Job-Information
-Situation-dependant Questions
-End of Conversation
Reliability screening devices
recommendations: .14
refference checks: .26
personal history data: .35
behavioural consistency method: .45
cognitive ability: .53
PRO personality test
+High additional value (bias reduction, objective, selection, promotions)
+measure compatibility with culture (employee-organization fit)
+intangible characteristics objectively measured
+legally defensible
+predicive ofjob performance
CONS personality test
-risk for faking
-bad predictor of job performance
-correlation with job performance constant
-insulting, with consequences for evaluationsof organization, reactions to job offers, recomending employer to others
PRO/CON situational judgment test
+inexpensive to develop and administer
+average validity of .34
+reduced levels of adverse impact
-not truly work samples
-does not measure on particular construct
-response formats may not cover all possible responses
Group discussion CON
-high costs and a lot of time involved with training the individuals rating the applicants
-every group is different the process is biased
-a repeat of the group discussion is not possible
-the process is not standardized
-if the candidate has the competences but is too shy so that he/she cannot present them
Group discussion PRO
-Interaction between candidates
-Good atmosphere, spontaneous speaking
-With group discussions a lot of skills can be proved directly
-Competencies assessed: verbal communication; leadership; assertiveness; confidence; listening
International Organization for Standardization ISO
develops standards in all the industrial and service sectors
ISO-Norm: It covers instruments and procedures for assessing people for purposes:

Employment related decisions
Career related decisions
Group decisions
Organization decisions