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49 Cards in this Set

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During the 1400's North African Muslims (Moors) had conquered most of Spain. Small Christian kingdoms (in north) expanded their borders and wanted to take over Muslim lands. Christians started to gain land back and in 1300 they controlled the entire Iberian Peninsula except Granada. In 1464 Ferdinand and Isabella got married and pushed Muslims out of Granada which fell in 1492.
Spanish Inquisition
Under Muslim rule, everyone was free to worship who ever. Isabella & Ferdindad united the throne, Isabella asked the church court to persecute Muslims & Jews who had been forced to convert to Christianity. If they were found of practicing their own religion they were punished.
Christians wanted to retake the holy land, brought in new ideas.
Europeans discovered Eastern Luxuries (fabrics,spices,perfumes,sugar,cotton,rice), Europeans now curious about bigger world,power of the church falls & kings rise(crusades end.
Pope Urban II
Issued the decree to the Christians to retake the holy land. Started crusades.
Richard the Lionheart
King of England from 1189-1199. He slayed all Muslim prisoners because the Saladin didn't fulfill his word.
Black Plague-Cause
Fleas on rats carried the disease. Traders brought rodents back on ships.
Black Plague- Orgin
Italian traders brought the disease back form Caffa.
Black Plague- Characteristics
The victims felt tingling, got a fever and boils. Their skin turned black. They smelt themselves rot and it lasted for 5 days before they died
Black Plague-Impact on Society
A lot of people stopped going to church and started "living it up" (partied, drank) because they figured they would die eventually. Some people became really religious and accomplished great things.
Feudal System
Powerful lords gave land to lesser lords in return for pledged service.
Manor System
Peasants farmed lords' lands in exchange for food, protection, land and shelter
Associations formed by competing merchangs and artisans. Provided social services and support. Only merchangs passed laws and levyed taxes.
Commercial Revolution
Merchants made partnerships, farmers started hiring laborers, and they started needing capital ($ for investment). Insurance and credit was made.
European noble who served as a mounted warrior. Lived by chivalry.
Code that knights had to follow. Taught them to be brave, honorable, and respectful to women.
Brought all of Europe together. Built schools to help bring people closer together.
Common people such as farmers and herders. Came from Gaul.
Wizard/magician. Friend of Arthur. Helped nourish Arthur when he was sick.
King who led the knights of the round table.
Hundred Year's War
French wanted to expand power by taking the English's power over French land. Lasted form 1337-1453 and the French won most of the land.
Joan of Arc
Led a French army against the English at 17. Led the French to many victories in less than 1 year. Church declared her a saint after she was burned at the stake.
Founder of Jewish religion. Led family to Canaan by God's wishes. God promised him many descendants.
Was raised by Pharaoh’s daughter. Was an Israelite. Demanded Israelites' freedom. When Pharaohs refused their freedom, God released plagues. Parted Red Sea and led them across it. Received Ten Commandments on Mt. Sina.
Moses led the Israelites out of Egypt to escape slavery. Pharaoh Seti ordered all Israelites to perform hard labor and all new born males to be killed.
Jewish church
Series of Jewish texts written on a long scroll. Can't be touched by human hands. Kept in a wooden shrine. First 5 books of the Hebrew Bible.
Son of God. Taught you were saved through faith, moral and ethic beliefs and showed God's love. Descendant of King David. 12 disciples. Romans were worried that he would change the people's faith so they crucified him. Disciples reported seeing him resurrected (Easter).
Where Jesus was crucified. Holy Land for all 3 religions.
Papal Supremacy
Popes had authority over all secular rulers (kings, emperors, bishops, feutal lords, etc.)
Having to do with worldly, rather than religious matters; non-religious
Born in 570 AD. At Mt. Heraa when he was 40 yrs old, God visited him and told him to be a messenger of God. Muhammad devoted his life to spreading Islam and urged Arabs to worship Allah, the last and greatest prophet.
Place where all Muslims make a pilgramige to. Where Muhammad began all his teachings, but people didn't like Muhammad's teachings (didn't want to give up idols) and they threw stones at him.
Had 2 rules: 1. Personal duty of Muslims was to overcome immortality in themselves. 2. Struggle is "holy war' to defend faith. This can only be declared by whole community.
Sacred book of Islam. Muslims believe it is God's final message given to Muhammad. Teaches that God is all-powerful and compassionate. People are responsible for their own actions.Believe that God sent other prophets (Abraham, Moses, Jesus) but Muhammad was the last and greatest.
Islam's one and only god. Muhammad devoted his life to spreading his word.
Mainstream traditional Muslim. 80% of all Muslims. Embrace success as Allah's work. More educated (upper class and majority).
Follow Ali. Majority only in Iraq. Oppressed in history. View dispossession and humiliation as honorable -like Ali (who was dishonored)
Form of democracy where representative of the people make laws. Had 2 consuls and a senate with 300 members.
Only one ruler. Has complete control over the government.
Punic War
264-146 B.C. Rome vs. Carthage (North Africa, Sicily, Spain). Rome defeated Carthage at Sicily. Then General Hannibal took army through Alps to sneak up on Rome. 15 year battle, but Rome won all of Carthage.
Powerful General in Rome who almost became first emperor. Was murdered by friends. Conquered Gaul.
Ended persecution of Christians. Issued the Edict of Milan. Gained throne of Rome in 312 B.C. Established new capital in old city of Byzantium (now called Constantinople).
Fall of Rome
Corruption after and during the civil war caused the fall. The civil war was caused by Caesar's death.
What factors allow empires to rise?
Stable government, advanced technology, support and dedication of people, strong military- conquer countries, resolution of conflict.
What factors allow empires to rise?
Corruption, war, no support of people, no order, epidemics, diseases, poverty, gap between social classes.
Where did the idea of democracy come from?
Greeks put the power in hands of people. Athens was the first democracy. Only land owning males voted, council of 500, had jury and punishments.
How has the geography of water affected civilizations in history?
Cleaner, more civilized and a better economy. Allows importing/ exporting. Rome had aqueducts, which made running water to cities (clean, running water).
What technology before the 1400 changed society the most?
Aqueducts because it supplied clean running water to the cities. So they (citizens) didn’t have to walk as far to the rivers and body of water to get water for themselves. They built arches to save brick since water came form the mountains, it was cleaner.