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87 Cards in this Set

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the general type of cleavage pattern typical of telolecthical and some centroecthical eggs,where the yolk cells either don't divide or they divide slower than the animal pole resulting in unequal distribution of the blastocoel.
meroblastic
In this type of cleavage the entire embryological mass divides including the yolk. This is characteristic of the homoecithal eggs and is the most common mode of cleavage in the metazoan phyla. Blastmomeres are generally equal in size and evenly distributed around the forming embryonic cavity, the blastocoel.
holoblastic
This is an equal cleavage where the yolk materials are surrounded. It is seen is some centroecithal eggs.
superficial
There are a variety of ways that in which blastomeres come to be arranged following holoblastic cleavage. Type of cleavage where there is a regular alternation of blastomeres around a polar axis resulting in a centrally located blastocoel.
radial
There are a variety of ways that in which blastomeres come to be arranged following holoblastic cleavage. Micromeres rotate 45 degrees from verticle after the third cleavage. After this rotation, successive tiers of blastomeres alternate so that cells of one tier rest in the wells or cell spaces formed between the cells below them.
spiral
There are a variety of ways that in which blastomeres come to be arranged following holoblastic cleavage. This type of cleavage is seen in Nematodes, other Aschelminthes and some Hemichordata. Cleavage tend to be in right and left halves
bilateral
egg cleavage in which each division irreversibly separates portions of the zygote with specific potencies for further development and what group of organisms does this type of cleavge go with?
determinate and protostomes
egg cleavage where early zygote cells have the capacity to develop into complete embryos and what group of invertebrates is this characteristic of?
indeterminate, deuterostomes
in most organisms the gastrocoel is the primordium of the:
digestive tract
the central chamber of the blastula formed in the cleavage period of an embryo is the
blastocoel
the mesoderm arises as outpockets from the primitive gut. These pockets become cut off in the blastocoel; their cavity is the coelom, their walls the mesoderm.
Enterocoel
As the mesoderm develops, the coelom develops as a split in the mesoderm.
Schizocoel
primordium of the digestive tract
the gastrocoel
4 phyla that characterize Deuterostoma
Echinodermata
Chaetognatha
Hemichordata
Chordata
blastocoel fills up with mesoderm in form of muslce fibers, parenchyma,and other tissue. The digestive cavity remains
Acoelomate
Blastocoel persists in adults leaving a space btw. digestive tract and the body wall. Blastocoel not lined completely with tissue of mesodermal origin.
psuedocoel
One organism benefits, the other is harmed (+ -)
parasitism
One organism benefits, other is unaffected (+ 0)
commensalism
both organisms benefit
mutualism
includes prokaryotic organisms such as bacteria and blue green algae (cyanophytes)
Monera
includes the various simple-celled eukaryotes such as protozoa and protophyta.
Protista
Includes yeats, mushrooms, rusts, smuts, sac, fungi, puffballs, molds, mildews , and slime molds
Fungi
These are multicellular and include the Parazoa and the Metazoa
Animal
Includes generally metaphyta and other vascular and nonvascular forms. Many species of algae are also placed in this Kingdom by some authors instead of Protista.
Plants
organisms that are either suspended in the water column or are swimmers.
pelagic
composed of intertidal and sublittoral
neritic
the region of the water column between 1000 and 4000 meters in depth.
bathypelagic
the region of the water comlumn between the surface and 200 meters in depth. Because of the depth, the region is generally found outside the sublittoral zone.
epipelagic
the region of the water column between 200 meters and 1000 meters in depth.
mesopelagic
the region of the water column deeper than 4000 meters
abyssopelagic
the upper region of the ocean where light can effectively penetrate and phtosynthesis exceeds respiration. usually betwen 100 and 200 meters depending on turbidity.
photic zone
the edge of the sea which rises and falls with the tides
littoral zone
in lakes, zone where it is generally the peripheral shallow zone which extends from the shoreline of a lake to the depth where planst are no longer found
littoral zone
the region below the intertidal zone which extends outward to the end of the continental.
sublittoral
in lakes, it is the zone which extends lakeward from the littoral zone into deeper water.
sublittoral zone
region below the sublittoral zone in deep lakes and essentially is the bottom zone
profundal
do lakes lack a limnetic?
no
vertical stratification in lakes
epilimnion
thermocline
hypolimnion
lakes whcih are young, deep, cold and nonreproductive are...
oligotrophic
lakes having intermediate characteristics are
mesotrophic
lakes which are rleatively shallow, warm, rich in organic matter and nutrients, and consequently highly productive are....
eutrophic
somes lakes may become bogs and are chracterized by having brown water, these lakes are called
dystrophic
biome that is cold and dry
tundra
some salt water organism were preadapted and could tolerate a wider gradient of salt concentrations called...
euryhaline
most salt water organisms can tolerate only a relatively narrow range of salt concentrations and are termed...
stenohaline
three classifications of estuaries from low salt to high salt concentration
oligohaline, mesohaline, polyhaline
some land dweeling organisms are ______ and retain eggs within the uterus until they hatch and then release larvae(____________), instead of laying eggs.
ovoviviparous, larvaposition
the large excurrent opeing of a sponge
osculum
a small supportive spike-like structure found in sponge skeletons
spicule
a small incurrent openingof a sponge
ostium
a tubular epidermal cell that surrounds an ostium in sponges
porocyte
an amoeboid wandering cell found in sponges
amoebocyte
a wander cell capable of differentiating into any of several cell types in sponges
archeocyte
The larva form of a leuconoid sponge
parenchymella
a flagellated collar cell foundin sponges
choanocytes
A meshwork of protein fibers in the "skeleton" of advanced sponges
spongin
The main interior body cavity of a simple sponge
spongocoel
A gelatinous material and its assoc. elements in the body wall of sponges and btw. the epidermal layer and teh gastroderm in radiate animals
mesoglea
sponges lack true tissue and organs,are they primitive?
yes
glass sponges
hexactinellida
most sponges
demospongiae
outer encasement of ca3co
sclerospongiae
simple to complex sponge types
asconoid
synconoid
leuconoid
specialized polyp of colonial hydrozoan
gasrozoid
primary body cavity
blastocoel
the cavity of coelomates which opens to the outside only by way of a mouth and serves as a digestive system.
gastrovascular cavity
A cell containing one or more statoliths used as a sense organs of equilibrium, oreientation and movement in invertebrates
statocyst
A thin circular flap which extends inward from the bell margin of hydrozoa medusae.
velum
a tubular mouth-bearing extension of the subumbrellar surface of a coelenterate medusa
manubrium
a compund sense organ in schyphanozoans, containing an ocellus, a statocyst which is tactile and chemoreceptive
rhopalium
the early, ciliated, free swimming larva of coelenterates
planula
a stack-like life cycle stage of scyphozoans which is composed of strobilating ephyrae
strobila
The stage which is produced by the scyphistoma in scyphozoans which matures into the adult medusa
ephyra
the polyploid stage in a scyphozoan life which strobilate ephyrae
schyphistoma
stinging cells
cnidocytes
a cell containing one or more statoliths used as a sense organ of equilibrium, orientation and movement in invertebrates
statocyst
hydra is in class...
hydrozoa
Aurelia is in class
scyphozoa
sea anemone is in class
anthozoa
lack operculum on its nemotocysts
anthozoa
oral arm is chracteristic of medusae
scyphozoa
girdle like transverse of armored dinoflagellates
sulcus
which go from host to host without cyst
Trichomonadida
what subphylum is amoeba in?
sarcodina
gregarina has two sections...
protomerite and deutomerite
think plasmodium----think
mosquito
what is parameciums subphylum
oligohymenophora