Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/83

Click to flip

83 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is Anatomy?
study of internal and external structures
What is Physiology?
how living organisms perform vital functions
Structure vs. Function
Structure dictates Function
Atoms
1) smallest stable units of matter
2) building blocks for everything
Molecular Level
1) atoms join to form molecules
2) functional properties are determined by shape (chemical)
Cellular Level
smallest living structural and functional unit of the body
Tissue Level
groups of cells working together to perform specific functions
Organ Level
2 or more tissues organized to perform several functions
Organ System Level
interaction of organs and tissues for a common purpose
Whole Organism
1) human being
2) needs all 11 systems working for life and health
7 Levels of Organization
Atoms, Molecular Level, Cellular Level, Tissue Level, Organ Level, Organ System Level, Whole Organism
11 Organ Systems
Integumentary, Skeletal, Muscular, Nervous, Endocrine, Cardiovascular, Lymphatic, Respiratory, Digestive, Urinary, Reproductive
Integumentary System
protection from enviroment, regulates temp, sensory info
ex: skin, hair, nails
Skeletal System
support and protect, mineral storage
ex: bone, cartilage, ligaments
Muscular System
movement, protection and support, body temp
ex: muscles and tendons
Nervous System
coordinates organ systems, response to stimuli
ex: brain, spinal cord, nerves
Endocrine System
coordinates organ systems, metabolic activity and development
ex: pituitary gland, sex glands
Cardiovascular System
distributes blood
ex: heart, vessels, blood
Lymphatic System
retains fluid, immune system
ex: spleen, lymph nodes
Respiratory System
provides O2 to blood, communication, balance pH
ex: lungs, trachea
Digestive System
digests food, absorbs nutrients
ex: stomach, liver, intestines
Urinary System
removes waste, controls water loss
Reproductive System
male - produce sperm & male hormones ex: testes
female - produce egg, female hormones, support infant
ex: ovaries, uterus
Homeostasis
1) existance of a relatively stable internal enviroment
2) specialized cells working in harmony, to maintain homeostasis, in spite of internal or external changes
Autoregulation
occurs when a cell or system adjusts its activites automatically
Extrinsic Regulation
when the nervous or endocrine systems cause a change in activities
Disorder
any abnormality of structure or function
Disease
a disorder charactorized by a set of signs & symptoms
What regulates Homeostasis?
nervous & endocrine systems
Receptor
senses a change in a particular parameter, stimulus
Control Center
receives & processes information from receptor, directs a change
Effector
responds to command, can oppose or enhance stimulus
Negative Feedback
1)stimulus produces a response that opposes or stops original stimulus
2)tends to minimize change
ex: temperature, blood sugar, most systems
Positive Feedback
1) stimulus produces a response that increases or enhances orginal stimulus
2) tends to produce extreme responses
ex: child birth, blood clotting
Dynamic Equilibrium
1)body is continually adapting and adjusting
2) requires coordinated efforts of multiple systems
Anatomical Postition
palms forward
(remember the cross)
Sagittal
vertical cut from to back (anterior to posterior)
Frontal or Coronal
cut from side to side
Transverse or Cross
horizontal cut
Superior
above
Inferior
below
Anterior
front, forward
Posterior
back, backward
Cranial
head, cephalic
Caudal
toward tail
Dorsal
back
Ventral
front
Proximal
toward and attachment
ex: elblow to shoulder
Distal
away from
ex: elbow to fingers
Medial
middle, toward the midline
Lateral
from side to side, away from the midline
Ipsilateral
same side
Contralateral
opposite sides
ex: left, right
Bilateral
both sides
ex: left and right
Serous Membrane
lines cavities
ex: parietal, visceral
Parietal Serous Membrane
lines body wall
Visceral Serous Membrane
lines organs
Serous Fluid
within the cavities, viscera lubricant
Thoracic Cavity
above the diaphram
heart, lungs
Pleural Cavity
houses the lungs
Pericardial Cavity
houses the heart
Pericardium
surrounding the heart
Diaphragm
seperates thoracic & abdominal cavities
Abdominal Cavity
house all abdominal organs
Peritoneum
lines abd cavity
Pelvic Cavity
houses bladder, rectum, reproductive organs
Costal
posterior ribs
Lumbar
posterior low back
Gluteal
posterior butt
Flank
side
Axilla
arm pit
Pectoral
anterior chest
Abdominal
anterior belly
Groin or Inguinal
between hip & pubic area
Brachium
upper arm
Antebrachium
forearm
Cubital
posterior elbow
Antecubital
anterior elbow
Calf
posterior leg
Popliteal Region
posterior knee
Plantar
sole of foot, ventral
Prone
face down
Supine
looking up