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49 Cards in this Set

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Phonetic Analysis =
Study of Alphabetic (sound-symbol) Principles of the English Language
Phonemic Analysis =
Study of the sounds in our language
Structural Analysis =
Study of Syllabic Structure of the English Language (syll types and syll division patterns)
Morphemic Analysis
Definition:
Analysis of words formed by adding prefixes, suffixes, or other meaningful units to a base word
A MORPHEME is a
unit of meaning
2 kinds of Morphemes
free
bound
“Free” Morphemes:
can stand alone
find, catch, up, cat
“Bound” Morphemes:
can’t stand alone
s, ing, er, con, re, ly, ject, rupt
A prefix______________ . It goes on the _____ of a root/base
adds meaning
front

ex:recount, inform, dissect, extract
A suffix goes on the ____ of the root/base. It __________ and sometimes _______________
end
changes the part of speech (N. V. Adv. Adj)
adds meaning
ex: buildable, viewer, phonic, vision
A base word (“____” morpheme) is a word usually of Anglo Saxon origin that _________________.
free
can stand alone

ex:count, form, build, view
A root word (“______” morpheme) is a word, usually of Latin or Greek origin, that ______________.
bound
cannot stand alone

ex: vis (invisible), phon (phonograph), sect (dissect), tract (tractor)
Most Common Prefixes:
un
re
in
dis
un
not
ex: unfair, unequal, unafraid
re
back, again

ex: reprint, reorder, remind
in (-im, -ir, -il)
not, in

ex: inhale/invisible, immovable/import, irregular, illegal/illuminate
dis
not, away, undoing

ex: dislike, dishonest, discard
Most Common Suffixes
s, es, ing, ed, er, est, ly
Most Common Suffixes
Grades 1 -3 teach:
-s, -ing, -ed, -es, ‘s, s’, -y, -ly, -er, -est, -en,
-able, -ful, -less, -ness, -ment, ish, & -tion

This is often the order they are taught
er (sharper, worker)= ___________ or ________,
compares
person
est
(softest)= compares 3 or more
able
(fixable) = able to
less
(harmless) = without?
full
(helpful)= full of
ish
(boyish, Swedish)=like a or belonging to
Explicit Teaching Procedure
(Morpheme Analysis)
Introduce the structural part as a unit using direct teaching just as you would a letter sound. (Model Lead Test Retest: ing)

Practice saying affix in isolation first until firm.

Practice new combination in word lists on board with 4-6 example words with base word underlined. This can be important for endings that result in doubling of the final consonant of the base word. Color code to make parts obvious!
boxing asking listing telling smashing
bagging padding skipping betting

Practice several days in word lists. At least half the list should use the newest affix, then include words with new affix in sentences and passages to read.
locking locks, helping helps, filling, fills, singing sings
Example “Say the underlined part. Now say the whole word”
betting runner biggest

MAKE CERTAIN that the base words are decodable.

You have just taught the 1-1-1 (Doubling) rule and your objective is: “Students will practice adding –ing to one syllable words in which the last letter doubles.” Your students only know sounds in open and closed syllables. Tell whether the following words are good or bad examples for children to practice with and why.
aim+ing, choose+ing, fly+ing, quiz+ing, mix+ing,
pass+ing, throw+ing, buzz+ing, step+ing, catch+ing,
budge+ing, cut+ing, bar+ing, oil+ing
The Suffix –ed What is the same about these words?

passed camped helped rocked soaped blinked puffed
end in unvoiced consonant so ed is pronounced unvoiced /t/
The Suffix –ed What is the same about these words?

ganged stored buzzed spoiled rained fanned jammed
end in voiced consonant so ed is pronounced voiced /d/
The Suffix –ed What is the same about these words?

ended acted landed drifted planted needed waited
end with t or d so ed is pronounced /ed/ as a separate syllable.
Instruction for the ED ending
Begin by introducing the base word and modeling how it is said with the ending, using all 3 sounds
jumped buzzed lifted (base without changes)
hopped hummed betted (base with changes)

Ask: What makes the ending “ed” special?
wished = /t/, hanged = /d/, waited = /ed/ or /əd/
Students practice saying the underlined base word then saying it with the “ed” ending
Students must underline the base correctly! (hopped vs hopped)
jumped buzzed lifted (base without changes)
hopped hummed betted (base with changes)
Which examples above would you use if you had not taught the 1-1-1 (Doubling) Rule yet?
buzzed
hopped
hummed
betted
Multisyllabic Words
As students move through difficult material they will encounter words of increasing number of syllables. By systematically introducing affixes (most common to least common - one at a time) students will have many more familiar word parts to use in decoding.
Underline the structural elements students have learned and have them read those before reading the full word
(preparing, preschooler, prevented)

Have children focus on the word parts (color code)! Teach them explicitly!
The suffix /shun/ is spelled three primary ways:
sion, tion, cian

The actual suffix is ‘ion.’
‘t’ & ‘s’ are often from the end of the root.
(react-reaction, vis-vision)
“ti” and “si” are the Latin
way to make the /sh/ sound
sion
If the base word ends in -ss use -sion. (confess – confession)
If you hear /zhun/ use –sion (confusion)
Latin origin
Means “state of being”
tion
-tion is more common. When in doubt, try –tion first.
If you hear /chun/ use –tion (question)
Latin origin,
means “state of being”
cian
Use –cian for words that means “a person who” (music – musician; electric – electrician; magic – magician)
The base word always ends in ‘c.’
Greek origin
It is a sign of reading & spelling maturity when students find it easier to divide by
word parts. This means their letter-sound decoding is becoming automatic.
the 1-1-1 spelling rule
(doubling)
1 syllable
1 vowel
1 final consonant

add vowel suffix and double consonant

ex: in=inning, tap=tapped
Why not double the x?
It already has two sounds
1-1-1 doubling rule
When a __ syll. word ends in __ _________________ and
__ _________________, ____________ the final consonant, and add
a ___________________ that starts with a __________________.
1
1 vowel
1 final consonant
double
suffix
vowel
1-1-1 RULE PART 2
In a word with more than 1 syllable, if the last syllable
has an accent, 1 vowel, and 1 final consonant, double the final consonant, and add a
suffix that starts with a vowel.
In a word with more than 1 syllable, if the last syllable
has an ______________, ____ ________________, and ___ final
____________________, double the final consonant, and add a
____________________ that starts with a ___________________.
ACCENT
1 VOWEL
1 CONSONANT
SUFFIX
VOWEL
Drop the silent E
When a word ends in silent e, drop
the ‘e’, and add a vowel suffix.
When a word ends in _________________, drop
the ‘e’, and add a _________________________.
silent e
vowel suffix
Exceptions to the Drop the Silent e Rule
ce ge
ce and ge keep the ‘e’ before –able and –ous to preserve their soft sounds.
Exceptions to the Drop the Silent e Rule
e is dropped before a ________________suffix in the words in this mnemonic.
consonant

Truly, Mr. Duly, your ninth argument is wholly awful, and that’s the truth!
Exceptions to the Drop the Silent e Rule
Two _____ are unwise
i's

(unless you are skiing in Hawaii)!
CHANGE THE Y TO I RULE
: When a word ends in a __________________ and a _____,
change the y to i and add –es, or _________ suffix, except
one that starts with an ____.
consonant
y
any
i