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36 Cards in this Set

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*****What is Fluency?
definition
The ability to read a text quickly, accurately, and with proper expression
*****Fluency:
Rate: prosodic reading
Accuracy: read without errors
2 aspects
*****Why is Fluency Important?
Research says successful readers…
rely primarily on the letters in the word
process virtually every letter.
use letter-sound correspondences to identify words.
have a reliable strategy for decoding words.
read words for a sufficient number of times for words to become automatic.
*****Why is Fluency Important?
Fluency is not an end in itself but a critical gateway to comprehension.
Fluent reading frees mental resources to process meaning (since students are not using all their mental energy to decode).
More fluent readers…
Need to direct relatively little effort to the act of reading, allowing them to focus active attention on meaning and message.
Less fluent readers…
Must direct considerable effort to the act of decoding the words, leaving little attention for reflecting on its meaning and message.
To Learn a Skill Fluently, a Student Must:
First practice the skill correctly;
Then practice it a sufficient number of times to develop fluency;
Review the skill enough to maintain it.
To Learn a Skill Fluently, a Student Must:
HOW MUCH REPETITION IS NEEDED?
Learner # of Repetitions
Most Able 1 or 2
Average 4 – 14
Least Able 20+ (?)
Students Who are Automatic with the Code…
Identify letter-sound correspondences accurately and quickly w/o effort.
Easily blend together isolated phonemes to make words.

Identify familiar spelling patterns to increase decoding efficiency. (e.g., rimes, affixes, small words inside larger words)
Apply knowledge of the alphabetic code to identify new words in isolation and connected text fluently.
________________Phoneme Fluency Practice Works!
5 Mins of Daily
Code & Word Fluency Activity
Model next 2 slides as a group fluency practice.
Play “Beat the Clock!” with a partner.
Say, “Read the sounds/words on the card while I time you. I will read some of the first row with you and help you if you get stuck. Then you do the rest of the card by yourself.” Ready? Go! (Start timer with 1st sound/word)
How many seconds did it take?
Try again, only this time do the card by yourself.
Did the # of seconds go down?
How Fluent?
End of 1st grade:
40+ cwpm (correct words per minute)
How Fluent?
End of 2nd grade:
90+ cwpm
Effective Fluency Instruction rests on 3 critical decisions
Selecting appropriate instructional tasks/materials
Scheduling sufficient practice
Systematically increasing the rate of response.
Passage Rereading
Passage rereading provides students the practice to become accurate and fluent.

Activity designed to provide practice and application of decoding and comprehension skills.

* For fluency building, materials should be at the top of the instructional level or above.
Rdg Level Wd Rec
Indep 96%-99%
Instruc 91%-95%
Frustr 90% or less
How to Determine Appropriate Level Text:
Select text that students read with_______accuracy
95%
How to Determine Appropriate Level Text
Equation
# of words read correctly/total words read = %
How to Determine Appropriate Level Text
80% accuracy_______________ be appropriate for fluency building
would not
Instructional Approaches
Direct
Indirect
2 Direct Teaching Strategies
Repeated Reading
Paired reading
Indirect Teaching strategies
Independent silent reading
Accelerated Reader (AR)
Drop Everything And Read (D.E.A.R.)
Sustained Silent Reading (S.S.R.)
The National Reading Panel found research has_______________________ independent silent reading as a means of improving fluency and overall reading achievement
not yet confirmed
Set a target re-reading rate: ___________ than the student’s current reading rate for guided repeated reading.
40% higher
Example: Bill read a passage (“cold” reading) at 50 cwpm
(50 + [40% of 50 = 20] = set goal at 70 cwpm.)
Guided Repeated reading Procedure
Set target re-reading rate
mark target word number in passage
Tell student he has 1 minute to read the passage with a partner & let student or partner set timer. Student practices with partner’s feedback until he reaches the goal, then goes for a checkout “hot” timed reading with the teacher.
How many times should reading be repeated?
3 to 4 rereadings should be adequate. Research shows the majority of the progress is made within 4 rereadings. .
The Repeated Reading Process
10 minutes
First
the student completes a one minute “cold” reading of a passage he has not practiced. The student’s cwpm are graphed.
The Repeated Reading Process
10 minutes
Second
the student practices the passage simultaneously either with a peer, a teacher, or a tape recording of the story to reach a goal of 40% higher than his “cold” reading rate. These practice readings may be repeated up to four times. These practiced readings may or may not be graphed.
The Repeated Reading Process
10 minutes
Third
the student completes a “hot” reading, which is graphed.
If the student reaches his cwpm goal in the “hot” reading, he moves to a new passage.
Goals for Building Fluency
Grade 1
Realistic Ambitious Goals
2.0 words/wk 3.0 words/wk
Goals for Building Fluency
Grade 2
Realistic Ambitious Goals
1.5 words/wk 2.0 words/wk
What you should look for in materials to build fluency:
Are passages within the learner's decoding range? (95% accuracy or higher)
Is there an explicit strategy for teaching students to transition from accuracy to fluency?
Is there enough material for daily opportunity for fluency building?
Is there overlap in words (i.e., words show up multiple times in different text)?
Are target rates identified?
Read Naturally (supplemental fluency building program for grades mid 1 - 6)
A supplemental tape-recording program that builds on three primary practices: model oral reading, repeated readings, and progress monitoring.
Students are place in appropriate level text and practice listening to and reading with tape-recorded passages.
Comprehension questions are included for each passage.
3 critical areas of fluency
Letter-sound fluency
irregular word fluency
oral reading fluency
rate?
1 sound/sec
1 word/sec