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56 Cards in this Set

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Students who are in this stage have only recently achieved a concept of word and begun to read. Words written are formed deliberately and with determination in a sound-by-sound fashion. Letter name spellers rely on the names of letters to spell words. They seek out the letter name that most closely matches the sound they are trying to reproduce. When there is no direct letter name match for the sound children choose the letter name with the closest “feel” (place of articulation) to the sound they are trying to represent. This approach leads to an unconventional spelling (e.g., drip as JEP, JP, GP, GEP, HEP, or HP.)
1. Initial and final consonants are usually the first features to become stable. 2. Letter name spellers’ representations of initial consonant blends and digraphs are often incomplete (GAB = grab and TAT = that). 3. Short vowels are written with many substitutions (PAT = pet). 4. Affricates (e.g., /j/, /ch/) are often substituted with another letter (JROM = drum, GOB = job HRE = tree, CHRAP = trap). 5. Final consonant blends and digraphs are often incomplete (DIS = dish, BOP = bump, LAD = land). 6. Omission of silent long vowel markers (BOT = boat, SHAD = shade) and of vowels in unstressed syllables (PAPR = paper, TMATO = tomato). (See Figure 1-2)
Many students move into the within word pattern stage during second grade. Students have developed sight word vocabularies that enable them to read without the support of patterned or familiar text. 1. Vowel-consonant-silent e patterns are the first to be used with confidence. 2. R-controlled vowel patterns are often substituted for each other (HERT = hurt, FEER = fear) Reversed letter order is common (GRIL = girl, BRID = bird) 3. Other common long vowels include vowel teams like ai, ay, ee, ea, oa and ui may be confused (BOET for boat and POAK for poke, TITE for tight) 4. complex consonant patterns (scr, tch, ck, kn, dge, qu may have errors (SKRAP and SCAP for scrap, QWEEN for queen, BRIGDE for bridge) 5. Abstract vowels and diphthongs may have errors (COWCH for couch and POYNT for point) 6. Over-reliance on sound with the -ed ending (BATID for batted). (See Figure 1-4)
Often occurs in the intermediate grades.
Students use most vowel patterns in single-syllable words correctly. Polysyllabic words and the issues accompanying them become the instructional focus. Students must learn to apply their pattern knowledge within syllables and across syllable boundaries.
Continues from upper middle school through adulthood. Mature writers and readers have discovered how the sound, pattern, and meaning principles of English spelling interact. Greek and Latin roots provide further areas for study at the derivational constancy stage.
Oral Reading Fluency - ORF from DIBELS
independent (95%+), instructional (91-94%), and frustrational (90% and below
Oral Reading Fluency - ORF from DIBELS
• Count the number of correctly read words per minute. Divide that number by the total number of words read to determine the percentage for the student’s independent, instructional, or frustrational reading levels. Note it on your passage.
• Compare the CWPM (correct words per minute) benchmark goal on the chart on page 10 from his/her actual grade level (fall or winter benchmark scores) with the CWPM score your student achieved on the passage(s) he/she read for you. Is your case-study student ‘at risk,’ ‘some risk,’ or ‘low risk’ for reading difficulties? Mark your response on your report and your passage
Phonics Instructions
Teaches children the relationship between phonemes & graphemes.
Goal of phonics instruction
Teach children how to use the alphabetic principle.
Alphabetic Principle
The understanding that there are systematic and predictable relationships between written letters and spoken sounds.
Knowing the relationships between written letters & spoken sounds help children
Recognize words automatically and decode new words.
Code Emphasis Programs
start instruction with select words made up of letters and letter combinations representing the same sound in different words
rain, trail, paid, aim… ; hot, mop, Tom….
Meaning Emphasis Programs
start instruction with select words that appear frequently in print regardless of their letter sound irregularity; variety of sources as cues
travel, gone to the ball, castle, step-sister, fairy godmother…
Decodable Readers
High percentage of words are linked to phonics lessons.

Used to help students focus their attention on sound-symbol relationships they are learning.

Contains some sight words.
Why is Alphabetic Principle important?
Decoding is an essential means of word recognition.

There are too many words to memorize.

Combo of PA & letter-sound recognition important for early reading success.
A Primary difference between good & poor readers
is the ability to use letter-sound correspondence to recognize words.
Approaches to Phonics Instruction
Synthetic Phonics(best)
Analytic Phonics
Analogy-based Phonics
Phonics through spelling
Embedded Phonics (bad)
Onset-rime Phonics
Synthetic Phonics*
Children learn how to convert letters & letter combos into sounds and then learn how to blend sounds to form words.
Analytic Phonics
Children learn how to analyze letter-sound relationships in previously learned words.
Analogy-based Phonics
Children learn parts of words families to identify new words with similar parts.
Phonics Through Spelling
Children learn to segment words and to write new words by writing the letters for the phonemes.
Embedded Phonics
Children are taught letter-sound relationships as they read. (Not systematic or explicit.)
Onset-rime Phonics
Children learn to identify the sound of the letters before 1st vowel and the sound of the rest of the word. (one syllable)
Explicit Phonics
Teachers students precisely what you want them to know.
Implicit Phonics
Implied, not revealed directly.
Teacher: Points to the letter m. “This sound is mmm. What sound?
Students: “mmm”
Teacher: “Yes, mmm.”

Is this is an example of explicit or implicit phonics instruction?
Teacher: Today we’re going to read “Brown Bear, Brown Bear, What Do You See? ‘Brown’ and ‘bear’ start with the sound /b/. Who can tell me another word that starts with the sound /b/?”
Students: “blue, birthday, breakfast!”
Teacher: “Yes, good. Let’s read the story.”
Is this is an example of explicit or implicit phonics instruction?
Programs with Systematic Explicit Phonics Instruction
Have a logical sequence
Help students break spoken words into sound and blend sounds into words.
Provides opportunities to practice.
Produces more growth in spelling & reading.
Non-Systematic Phonics Programs
Literature based with embedded phonics.
L-S relationships taught incidentally.
Focus on whole word or meaning based.
Sight-word programs.
Direct Instruction
Factor that influence sound
Position in a word or syllable
Lexical environment
Syllable type
Lexical environment
What letter comes after the grapheme.
There are ___types of syllables
Only ___of words need to be learned by sight, because they contain uncommon sounds not found in a traditional pattern
Hannah, et al. (1966)
examined 17,310 words and found 50% of them have a 1-to-1 relationship and 37% are predictable in all but 1 sound (totaling 87% regular). Only 13% of words need to be learned by sight, because they contain uncommon sounds not found in a traditional pattern.
c and g will make its hard sound if it is followed by
a, o, or u (also in consonant blends cl cr, gl, gr)
The “fat” vowels
c and g will make its soft sound if it is followed by
i, e, or y
The “skinny” vowels
y is a consonant
at the beginning of a syllable.
y says /ē/ when
in the final unaccented open syllable.
y says /ī/ when
in the accented syllable.
y says /ĭ/ in
in the middle of a closed syllable.
Letter-Sound Correspondences Sequencing Rules
1.Teach correspondences from simple to complex
2.Teach more frequent letters before less useful letters (short vowels, s, m, t, r )
a.Continuants are easier to blend and read than stopped sounds
b.The first five or so letters introduced should be continuants.
3.Teach the most common sound of the letter first (e.g., teach the hard sounds of c and g before the soft sounds)
4.Separate visually and auditorily similar letters in the sequence (e.g., visually similar = h/n; auditorily similar = k/g, e/i; both = d/b, m/n, b/p)
Procedure for Introducing a New Sound or Concept
Signaling Procedure for LSC Review
Put the letter/letter combinations on the board that you want to review, or have them ready on cards.
Have the newest sound (ĕ) sprinkled throughout the list, or put the e-card back in the card pack several times.
Step 1: Point under the letter without touching (focus cue) and pause
Step 2: Touch and out (hold 2 seconds for a continuous sound and an instant for a stopped sound)

ă ĕ m ĭ b ĕ ŭ f ŏ k ĕ
Procedures for Blending
Start with 2-3 phoneme CVC word with continuants. Write it on the board with a little space between the letters. Add a dot under each grapheme. (e.g., sh has 1 dot under it)
Point to the left of the word. Say, “Get ready.” Then the teacher loops under the first sound and holds for at least 1 ½ seconds.
Then the teacher quickly makes a loop, moving the finger under the second sound and holding for at least 1½ seconds.
The teacher quickly makes a loop, moving the finger under the third sound and holding for at least 1 ½ seconds.
As a general rule...
introduce reading in text after students sound out regular words in _______________on the first reading.
3 seconds or less
Progression of Regular Word Reading
Sounding Out Blending Sounds to Form a Word Saying the Whole Word by Sight (sounding out the word in your head, if necessary)
As a general rule
intro reading after students sounds out regular words in 3 seconds or less
Provide initial practice in decodable text.
Include repeated opportunities to read words in text
Encourage sounding out
Progress to students figuring out words by saying the sounds.
Error Correction Procedures: Sounds
Sounding Out Regular Words
How do you give students enough practice?
Whole Group Response
Sounding Out Regular Words
How do you ensure that students respond simultaneously?
Signals – visual (pointing to word/sound, raising or tapping a finger for each sound) auditory (clap/tap for each word when reading list of words in unison)
Sounding Out Regular Words
How do you monitor student performance?
Listen, watch mouths and eyes, test, retest
Sounding Out Regular Words
How do you test for accuracy?
Individual tests (1 min. reading record)– record names of students who make errors, record the particular errors, & the sounds that take greater than 2 seconds to produce
General Reading Procedure
1ST Reading
Teacher writes on Board words that were missed and conducts blending or sight-word list exercise.
2nd Reading
3rd Reading
1st Reading
Discuss the title/topic/pictures of the story to prepare for reading. Students in the group read the decodable story in unison from a big book (teacher points to words as each word is read) or from small books in pairs (students point to each word).
Correct errors immediately
2nd Reading
Teacher calls on students to read individually a sentence or two at a time. Randomly select individuals/pairs to read.
3rd Reading
Students read independently to themselves or to a partner.