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40 Cards in this Set

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Segmenting
words into individual syllables and sounds, the student must be able to isolate, count and separate individual syllables and sounds. The process of segmenting and substituting sounds is involved in spelling
Phonological recoding
the process of translating a word into its phonological counterpart, remembering the correct sequence of sounds, blending the sounds together, and searching for the meaning of the word in memory. While phonological recoding need only occur a few times for typical readers to be able to read with ease and speed; emerging, disabled, and diverse learners need more practice and must be encouraged to look carefully at spellings and sounds and to repeatedly sound out and blend words
Phonological recoding is best done in a
concrete, multisensory manner with emerging readers and readers with disabilities
Phonemic Awareness
can be demonstrated by
Recognition that 2 words start or end with the same sound cat – can mad – lid
or have the same vowel sound hŏt – pŏd
▪ Recognition that words are made up of separate sounds that can be blended together for reading
/t/ + /ă/ + /p/ = _____________
▪ or segmented for spelling
snack = ? / /, / /, / /, /
The phoneme is an
abstract concept which is not intuitively obvious to most children without some instruction.
Phonemes are spoken at
____________ sounds per second
The English language uses an
______________________________code
/p/ =
_____ is an easy example.
/k/ =
_______________________ is a hard example
The National Reading Panel recommends ___________________in PA as a part of every K-1 program and with struggling readers in programs for gr 2+.
10-20 minutes of daily instruction
-Dr. Reid Lyon, 1998, Boone, NC IDA Conference
“The best predictor of reading accuracy and reading speed at age 6 is performance on tasks of phonemic awareness. It is the same construct as at 26! It’s the most severe impediment to reading success, …it’s the most robust predictor, …it’s the most consistent over time.”
Screening
1. Auditory Deletion Analysis – based on the Test of Auditory Analysis Skills, by Jerome Rosner
2. Yopp-Singer Test of Phoneme Segmentation (not copy written)
Phonological/Phonemic Awareness involves classroom practice to develop an understanding of:
Rhyming
Alliteration
Onset-rime
Discrimination(do they sound the same?)
Phoneme Identification
Isolating
Counting
*Adding/Blending
Deleting
*Segmenting
Substituting
Segmenting
words into individual syllables and sounds, the student must be able to isolate, count and separate individual syllables and sounds. The process of segmenting and substituting sounds is involved in spelling
Phonological recoding
the process of translating a word into its phonological counterpart, remembering the correct sequence of sounds, blending the sounds together, and searching for the meaning of the word in memory. While phonological recoding need only occur a few times for typical readers to be able to read with ease and speed; emerging, disabled, and diverse learners need more practice and must be encouraged to look carefully at spellings and sounds and to repeatedly sound out and blend words
Phonological recoding is best done in a
concrete, multisensory manner with emerging readers and readers with disabilities
Phonemic Awareness
can be demonstrated by
Recognition that 2 words start or end with the same sound cat – can mad – lid
or have the same vowel sound hŏt – pŏd
▪ Recognition that words are made up of separate sounds that can be blended together for reading
/t/ + /ă/ + /p/ = _____________
▪ or segmented for spelling
snack = ? / /, / /, / /, /
The phoneme is an
abstract concept which is not intuitively obvious to most children without some instruction.
Phonemes are spoken at
____________ sounds per second
The English language uses an
______________________________code
/p/ =
_____ is an easy example.
/k/ =
_______________________ is a hard example
To an individual with weak Phonological Awareness ability, this system of language appears arbitrary.
However, the English Language is about _______________________ regular
_________________
Research suggests that up to _______________________% of students do not develop adequate Phonological Awareness to decode the sound-symbol relationship on their own
____________________
The National Reading Panel recommends ___________________in PA as a part of every K-1 program and with struggling readers in programs for gr 2+.
10-20 minutes of daily instruction
-Dr. Reid Lyon, 1998, Boone, NC IDA Conference
“The best predictor of reading accuracy and reading speed at age 6 is performance on tasks of phonemic awareness. It is the same construct as at 26! It’s the most severe impediment to reading success, …it’s the most robust predictor, …it’s the most consistent over time.”
Screening
1. Auditory Deletion Analysis – based on the Test of Auditory Analysis Skills, by Jerome Rosner
2. Yopp-Singer Test of Phoneme Segmentation (not copy written)
Phonological/Phonemic Awareness involves classroom practice to develop an understanding of:
Rhyming
Alliteration
Onset-rime
Discrimination(do they sound the same?)
Phoneme Identification
Isolating
Counting
*Adding/Blending
Deleting
*Segmenting
Substituting
Phonological Awareness Continuum
From Less Complex to More Complex
1.Oral Rhyming
2. Oral Segmenting into individual words
3. Oral Segmenting & blending of syllables
4.Oral Blending & Segmenting words into Onset-rime
5. Oral Blending & segmenting words into individual sounds
3 Types of Assessment
•Screening assessments
•Diagnostic assessments
•Progress monitoring assessments
Screening
Designed as a first step in identifying children who may be at high risk for delayed development or academic failure and in need of further assessment or additional reading instruction. Also to assist in placing children into instructional groups
• When: Early in the academic year or when new students enter school
• Who: All students
• Advantages: You can test skills important to your curriculum and to the individual needs of your students, and you can test skills in enough depth that an error/miscue analysis can be conducted which will help direct your instruction (Diagnostic/Prescriptive)
You are administering screening-type tests in READ 3224. Anyone can administer these types of tests.
Progress Monitoring
Determines through frequent measurement (1-minute probes with results plotted on a graph) if students are making adequate progress or need more intervention to achieve grade-level reading outcomes
Reasons for Progress Monitoring
•To identify the rate of progress or lack of progress
•To inform instruction (what I am teaching is working or not working with the children)
•To make instructional decisions (e.g., to change instructional programs or placements: increase/decrease intensity and duration of instruction)
•When & Who: Usually administered every one or two weeks for those who are below benchmark for their grade level
Either the classroom teacher or a literacy specialist may monitor students’ reading progress
Diagnostic
Helps teachers plan instruction by providing in-depth information about students’ skills and instructional needs
•When: Following screening (benchmarking) when a child is identified who is below benchmark or at points during the year when students are not making adequate progress.
•Who: Selected students as indicated by screening or progress monitoring measures or teacher judgment.
Your educational psychologist may do this for children referred for special education services.
Reading Level
Independent
Word Recognition 96%-100%
Comprehension 75%-90%
Reading Level
Instructional
Word Recognition 91%-95%
Comprehension 50%-75%
Reading Level
Frustrational
Word Recognition 90% or less
Comprehension Below 50%
A miscue is
“an oral reading response that differs from the expected response to the written text” (Harris and Hodges, 1981, p. 199 as cited in Johns, 2005) “Miscues provide a rich source of information for analyzing language and reading development.” (Harris and Hodges, 1995, p. 155 as cited in Johns, 2005)
MIscues
Substitutions
Omissions, hesitations
Insertions
Reversals/Rotations/Sequencing Errors
Self Correction, Reptition
DSL Screening Stage Descriptions
Stage 1: EMERGENT SPELLING
Stage 2: LETTER NAME SPELLING
Stage 3: WITHIN WORD PATTERN SPELLING
Stage 4: SYLLABLE JUNCTURE SPELLING
Stage 5 DERIVATIONAL CONSTANCY SPELLING
Stage 1: EMERGENT SPELLING:
Writing attempts by children who are not yet reading. Some may pretend-write with scribbles or random marks, or reveal greater understanding through their more linear and wave-like writing. These children start to notice print and begin to write letters in their name. Words are rendered with strings of letters and letter-like symbols. Although this writing has the look of real writing, there is no relationship between the letters used and the sounds represented (also called prephonetic). (See Figure 1-1) During the Semiphonetic phase of Emergent spelling, the student may write a single letter for one of the sounds in the word.