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40 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Writing Centers
Students draw, write in journals, compile books, write messages to classmates.

Make books based on what they have read

Teachers model how to write brief messages to students.

Mailboxes or message bulletin boards can be set up.

The social purpose of reading and writing is stressed in this center
Literacy Centers
to practice skills, reinforce previous lessons, and extend children’s learning while facilitating teacher’s time management during group reading lessons.
/ē/ - baby
/ī/ - rely
/ĭ/ - gym
/ə/ - around
-ck = /k/ - sick
-ng = /ŋ/ - sing
-nk = /nk/ - sink
-tch = /ch/ - itch
-dge = /j/ - badge
sh = /sh/ - shop
ch = /ch/ - chip
ch = /k/ - chrome
ch = /sh/ - chef
voiced th =
/th/ - that
unvoiced th =
/th/ - thumb
wh = /hw/ - when
ph = /f/ - phone
st – stop sm – smack
sn – snap sp – spot
sc – scot sk – skip
sw – sweat tw – twin
bl – block fl – flip
sl – sled pl – play
cl – clap gl – glad
gr – grab br – brush
cr – crack tr – tree
dr – drink fr – fry
pr – prank shr - shrimp
thr - three squ – squid
str – string scr – scrap
spr – spring spl – splash
-ct – act, -lt – melt
-pt – wept, -ft – left
-nt – bent, -st – last
-lp – gulp, -sp - gasp
-mp – camp
-lk – milk, -sk – ask
-nd – end,
-nch – bench
-ld – old, -lf – elf
ar = /är/ - car
ar = /ər/ - dollar
or = /ôr/ - for
or = /ər/ - doctor
er - /ûr/ - her
ir = /ûr/ - skirt
ur = /ûr/ - fur
ear = /ûr/ - earth
ear = /ēr/ - fear
ear = /âr/ - bear
wor = /wûr/ - word
war = /wôr/- warm
ai = /ā/ - rain
ay = /ā/ - day
oa = /ō/ - coat
oe = /ō/ - toe
ee = /ē/ - feet
ui = /oo/ - suit
oi = /oi/ - oil
oy = /oi/ - boy
au = /au/ - author
aw = /au/ - law
oo = /oo/ - school
oo = /oo/ - book
ow = /ō/ - snow
ow = /ou/ - plow
ie = /ī/ - pie
ie = /ē/ - chief
ue = /oo/ - blue
ue = /u/ - cue
ea = /ē/ - eat
ea = /ĕ/ - bread
ea = /ā/ - steak
ou = /ou/ - ouch
ou = /oo/ - soup
ou = /ǔ/ - cousin
ou = /ō/shoulder
eu = /oo/ - neutral
eu = /ū/ - feud
ew = /oo/ - flew
ew = /ū/ - few
ei = /ē/ - ceiling
ei = /ā/ - vein
ey = /ē/ - key
ey = /ā/ - obey
Vowel forms with silent letters
-igh = /ī/ - sigh
eigh = /ā/ - eight
augh = /au/ - taught
ough = /au/ - thought
ough = /ō/ - though
Final Stable Syllables
-ble, -dle, -zle, -ple
-cle, -kle, -ckle, -tle
-fle, -gle, -stle

-tion =
/shun/ - action
/chun/ - question
-sion =
/shun/ - mission
/zhun/ - vision
-ture =
/cher/ - picture
Silent Letters
kn = /n/ - knock
gn = /n/ - gnaw
wr = /r/ - wrist
rh = /r/ - rhubarb
-mb = /m/ - thumb
-mn = /m/ - column
gh = /g/ - ghost
gh = /f/ - laugh
Anglo Saxon Forms
-ind – kind
-ild – wild
-old – cold
-ost – most
-oll – roll
-olt – bolt
-alk – walk
-ed = /ed or əd/ - ended
-ed = /d/ - rammed
-ed = /t/ - camped
-ly = /lē/ - quickly
A Variations
wa = /wǒ/ - watch
qua = /kwǒ/ - quad
all = /ôl/ - tall
-alt = /ôlt/ - salt
-ald = /ôld/ - bald
ph = /f/ (Greek) - phone
sc = /s/ - science
-que = /k/ (French)
- antique
-gue = /g/ - tongue
Stopped & Continuant
Voiced & Unvoiced
by either the tongue, teeth, or lips
uninterrupted sound goes on as long as you have breath
With vocal cords adding sound
No vocal cords adding sound - just air
Sound comes through the nasal passage
2 letters that make 1 sound
Marilyn J. Adams
“Beginning to Read: Thinking and Learning About Print”, 1990
“In summary, deep and thorough knowledge of letters, spelling patterns, and words, and of the phonological translations of all three, are of inescapable importance to both skillful reading and its acquisition. By extension, instruction designed to develop children’s sensitivity to spellings and their relations to pronunciations should be of paramount importance in the development of reading skills. This is, of course, precisely what is intended of good phonic instruction.”
In 2000, the National Reading Panel issued the following statement in its April 13, 2000 press release
“In the largest, most comprehensive evidenced-based review ever conducted of research on how children learn reading, a Congressionally mandated independent panel has concluded that the most effective way to teach children to read is through instruction that includes a combination of methods. The panel determined that effective reading instruction includes teaching children to break apart and manipulate the sounds in words (phonemic awareness), teaching them that these sounds are represented by letters of the alphabet which can then be blended together to form words (phonics), having them practice what they've learned by reading aloud with guidance and feedback (guided oral reading), and applying reading comprehension strategies to guide and improve reading comprehension.”
In another comprehensive survey of research regarding twenty- four widely used school reform models (commissioned by the National Education Association [NEA], the American Association of School Administrators [AASA], and others)
only three models showed “strong evidence” of effectiveness. Only two of the three were applicable in elementary school (the third was a high school model), and both of these models featured highly structured, systematic phonics instruction; most of the other models did not feature such instruction.
Project Follow-Through
the largest educational study every conducted in the history of education research, the U.S. Department of Education compared a systematic, comprehensive, phonics-based approach against eight other styles of teaching reading. The results indicated the overwhelming superiority of the phonics-based approach. The study was especially interesting because it was conducted in "real-world" classrooms rather than in the lab.
National Institute of Child and Human Development has spent 30 years conducting credible, large-scale scientific reading research.
strident in its consistent recommendations that teachers implement comprehensive, systematic phonics
And finally the entire state of California inadvertently performed its own large-scale "research" during the late 1980s and early 1990s by dropping phonics statewide from its reading curricula in 1987. (This was merely a continuation of California's decades-long policy of moving away from all forms of systematic instruction including phonics.) The resulting catastrophe precipitated several events:
By 1994, when all of California's public school fourth-graders had been trained exclusively in a phonics-free environment, California's performance was at the very bottom of the national scores on the U.S. Department of Education's NAEP Reading Report Card (it tied with Louisiana for last place among 39 states tested).

The state education superintendent of the time, Mr. William Honig, stepped down from his position. He has since written a book (Teaching our Children to Read: The Role of Skills in a Comprehensive Reading Program) explaining the enormity of California's mistake.

The California State Board of Education has now revised its official reading policy, and California is just beginning its long, slow climb back up the ladder (in 1998 it ranked fourth from the bottom among participating states).
Conclusions of decades of research in reading (not just the "latest research" so often cited in the promotional material for many curricula) are summarized succinctly in the following set of recommendations:
• Teach phonemic awareness explicitly. Although there are some children who have an implicit understanding of phonemic awareness, almost all children benefit greatly from explicit instruction. Phonemic awareness is a prerequisite for successful subsequent phonics instruction.

• Teach every letter-sound correspondence explicitly. Research supporting this idea is simply overwhelming. Children who have been trained explicitly to decode words are far more likely to read successfully than children who have had limited training or no training.

• Teach high frequency letter-sound relationships early. Successful curricula tend to involve students in activities in which they can experience immediate and ongoing success. A successful phonics program gets children reading as soon as possible by teaching the highest frequency relationships early and presenting students with stories that consist of words containing only the relationships that have already been taught.

• Teach sound-blending explicitly. Students do not necessarily understand how to connect the phonemes in unfamiliar words. Students with explicit training outperform those who have had little or no training.

• Correct every oral reading error. All children, and especially children with reading difficulties, benefit the most when they receive corrective feedback regarding all reading errors, regardless of whether those errors influence the meaning of the passage (many meaning-emphasis programs encourage teachers to correct only errors affecting meaning).

• Use code-based readers rather than ordinary literature during early instruction. Any curriculum whose early reading experiences consist only of exposing children to ordinary literature will almost certainly induce a high failure rate, and consequently lead to initial discouragement and confusion among students. Programs which compensate for this failure by encouraging the use of context (i.e. guessing) actually hinder reading development. In contrast, curricula that induce and sustain a high level of success through careful, systematic design produce the highest levels of reading success and self-esteem.
Phonological Awareness:
Broad term for the oral manipulation and conscious awareness of words, syllables, sounds
Phonemic Awareness:
Narrow term for the oral manipulation and conscious awareness of sounds only
Recognition that words a) start/end/have same vowel sound, b) are made up of sounds that can be blended or seg’d
Written practice matching sounds (phonemes) to symbols (graphemes). (The alphabetic principle)
a sound that makes up words of a language. English has ~44 phonemes articulated ~10-20 sounds/sec
letter or letter combination such as ‘sh’or ‘-ck’(a visual symbol that represents one sound)
How Can you tell P.A. & Phonics Apart?
Oral (P.A.) vs. written (phonics) practice of words, syllables, sounds
Example of phoneme-grapheme relationship:
/p/ = p (simple example); /k/ = c, k, -ck, ch, -que (complex ex.)
individual sounds to form a word, the student must be able to isolate sounds and add them together. This process of blending sounds to form words orally is later transferred reading unknown words.