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69 Cards in this Set

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What is the best initial treatment for solar bruising in the horse?
Rest and NSAIDS (such as phenylbutazone)
Name two conditions in the horse associated with puncture wounds received during shoeing.
-"Nail Bind"
-Sub-solar abscess
"Seedy Toe" in the horse is the _____, and may be 2° to laminitis or lead to 2° infection.
undermining of the hoof wall at the toe leading to an abnormally wide white line
Vertical hoof cracks in the horse are more common in the ___ of the forelimbs or ____ of the hindlimbs.
-toes of the forelimbs
-quarters of the hindlimbs
Name 4 methods for stabilising the hoof capsule in a horse with vertical hoof wall cracks.
-bar shoes with quarter clips
-hoof casts
-neutralising forces across crack by bridging w/ wire, nails, fibreglass, or metal plates
-trim ground surface of quarter cracks so the region does not bear weight
Corns in the equine foot are associated with:
-infrequent shoeing
-poor farriery (shod too short)
What is a keratoma?
a benign tumour of the inner hoof wall
A bacterial infection of the skin at the palmar or plantar pastern or heel is called ____.
"mud rash"
Raised bar shoes may be used in the treatment of thrush in the horse because _____.
they allow for better ventilation
"Canker", or chronic pododermatitis in the equine foot, is commonly seen in ______.
draught horses in wet stables
(hindlimbs are affected more often than forelimbs)
Name the two forms of pedal osteitis and the likely cause of each.
-septic: secondary to sub-solar abscessation/wound
-non-septic: chronic sub-solar bruising in horses with flat thin-soled feet
Name some types of wounds in horses.
-abrasion
-bruising
-haematoma
-contusion
-puncture wound
-incised wound
-laceration
-complicated
-burns
-pressure necrosis
Name some systemic factors that may affect wound healing.
-haemorrhage
-malnutrition
-NSAID administration
-corticosteroids
-concurrent disease
Name some local factors that may affect wound healing.
-trauma
-infection
-temperature
-oxygen
-movement
What factors should be considered when managing equine wounds in the field.
-safety of people and animials
-control of acute haemorrhage
-removal of gross contamination
-bandage to prevent further contamination
-apply dressings/splints if appropriate
-examine for concurrent injuries
-ancillary diagnostics
Why is wound debridement important?
-removes adhered bacteria
-removes devitalized tissues
-removes contamination
-enables healing to commence
Proud flesh, the _____ that can form on distal limbs or over joints, can be removed by _____.
-vascular but insensitive hypergranulation tissue

-regular debridement and bandaging or casting
What is an "involucrum"?
The reactive bone surrounding a sequestrum
Name the most common skin graft techniques in horses.
-pinch
-punch
-mesh
-line
<pedicle and tunnel grafts are impractical>
Name, in order, the joints most commonly involved in septic arthritis.
-tarsocrural
-fetlock
-carpus
-stifle
-pastern
What tendon sheaths are commonly involved with tenosynovitis?
-digital tendon sheath (most common)
-tarsal tendon sheath
-carpal tendon sheath
In regards to synovial sepsis, gram ___ bacteria are more commonly isolated from adults, while gram ____ tend to be seen in neonates.
-gram positive (staph. aureus most common)
-gram negative (E.coli most common)
How does septic arthritis in foals differ from adults?
-usually due to haematogenous spread
-multiple joints affected
When selecting an antibiotic for intra-articular infusion in the horse, it is critical to choose one ____.
without preservatives
When evaluating a synovial fluid sample, which parameters may alert you to the presence of infection?
-Appearance: serosanguinous
-Clot formation: increased
-Mucinous precipitate: poor
-Total protein: 30-60g/l
-Total nucleated cells: 20-150 X 10^9/l
-% neutrophils: >90
Name some treatments that may be used in cases of synovial infections in the horse.
-Systemic antimicrobials: gentamicin, penicillin
-Intra-articular medication: gentamycin, amikacin, cephazolin
-Regional limb perfusion: tourniquet 15-20min EOD
-Antibiotic impregnated PMMA or gelatin sponges
-Lavage and Drainage: +/- arthroscopy
Describe the treatment for physitis in the growing horse.
-restrict exercise
-reduce dietary energy intake
-take caution with NSAIDs
-usually self limiting
Name the two common areas to find physitis in the growing horse.
-medio-distal radius/tibia
-medio-distal metacarpal/tarsal III
Describe "angular limb deformity" in the growing horse.
-a common condition in foals involving a deviation from the sagittal plane usually with rotation
-more often valgus deformity rather than varus
-seen in carpi, hocks, and fetlocks
-may be congenital or acquired
How is a valgus deformity differentiated from a varus deformity?
-this depends on the direction of deviation of the distal aspect of the joint
-valgus: lateral deviation (cow-hocked)
-varus: medial deviation (bow legged)
What is the technique for surgical correction of angular limb deformities in the foal?
Transphyseal bridging (long side) with periosteal transection and elevation (short side)
How does type 1 flexor deformity of the distal interphalangeal joint differ from type 2?
type 1: dorsal hoof wall still slopes cranially (Tx: desmotomy of accessory ligament of the DDFT)
type 2: dorsal hoof wall slopes caudally (Tx: DDF tenotomy)
Why is oxytetracycline used in the treatment of congenital flexural limb deformities?
Oxytet interferes with calcium binding allowing for increased laxity in the tendons and therefore severe physiotherapy can be done
Which tendon(s) may be involved in a flexor deformity of the metocarpalphalangeal joint?
-SDFT
-DDFT
-SL
Which tendon(s) may be involved in a flexor deformity of the distal interphalangeal joint?
-DDFT
-ALDDFT
Flexural deformities of the fetlock joints occur more frequently in the ____ limbs versus the ____ limbs.
occurs more frequently in the forelimbs versus the hindlimbs
Name some factors involved in the development of osteochondrosis in the horse.
-body mass
-speed of growth
-diet
-trauma
-hereditary
-minerals
-hormones
What would be the clinical presentation of a lateral luxation of the patella in a young horse?
-most likely a pony or mini breed
-unable to extend stifle leads to crouched stance
What would be the clinical presentation of a rupture of the common digital extensor tendon in a young horse?
-horse will be "over at the knee"
Congenital hyperextension is a very common condition seen in neonates that affects the ___limbs more often than the ___limbs.
affects the hindlimbs more often than the forelimbs
Name the 6 causes of laminitis in the horse.
-carbohydrate overload
-septicaemia
-excess weightbearing
-concussion
-corticosteroid administration
-Cushing's disease
After initial insult, there is a _____ prodromal period before onset of clinical signs of laminitis.
2-3 day
Briefly describe the two current pathophysiology theories of laminitis.
-endotoxins released into circulation -> vasoconstriction and activation of AV shunts -> laminar perfusion decreased (exacerbated by microthrombi) -> laminar ischaemia and necrosis -> dorsal region affected first causing rotation of pedal bone -> other laminae affected causing sinking/founder
or
-systemic disease activates proteolytic enzymes (matrix metalloproteinases) -> type IV collagen unravels.....
Why is acepromazine given in the treatment of acute laminitis?
for its vasodilatory effects
Describe the clinical presentation of a horse with "laminitis", according to the Cripps & Eustance classification.
-increased digital pulses
-heel-first placement
-hooves normal in appearance
Describe the clinical presentation of a horse with "acute founder", according to the Cripps & Eustance classification.
-hooves normal in appearance
-depression of front of coronary band
-increased lameness
Describe the clinical presentation of a horse with "sinkers", according to the Cripps & Eustance classification.
-coronary band depressed around the entire length
-reluctant to walk
Describe the clinical presentation of a horse with "chronic founder", according to the Cripps & Eustance classification.
-hoof wall rings
-flat soles
-broken-back hoof-pastern axis
-widened white line
Which tendons do racehorses tend to injure?
SDFT>SL>DDFT
Which tendons do show jumpers tend to injure?
DDFT (CL)>SL>SDFT
Which tendons do quarter horses tend to injure?
SL>flexor tendons
You are presented with a horse with suspected tendon/ligament injury. It stands with it's left hind fetlock nearly touching the ground. What do you suspect?
Ruptured or dysfuncitonal Suspensory Ligament
You are presented with a horse with suspected tendon/ligament injury. It stands bearing most of it's weight on it's right hind heels, with the dorsal hoof wall off the ground. What do you suspect?
Ruptured or dysfuncitonal Deep Digital Flexor Tendon
You are presented with a horse with suspected tendon/ligament injury. It stands with it's right hind pastern parallel to the ground. What do you suspect?
Ruptured or dysfuncitonal Superficial Digital Flexor Tendon
Name the four mechanisms of tendon degeneration.
-mechanic strain: material fatigue
-physical: hyperthermia (up to 45°C damages cells and collagen
-decreased blood flow: hypoxia, free radicals
-proteolytic enzymes: surpass collagen synthesis
What is a "bowed tendon"?
Tendonitis of the SDFT leading to swelling of the palmar aspect of the metacarpal region.
What is a "bog spavin"?
synovial distension of the tarsocrural joint
What are the predilection sites for Osteochondrosis Dissecans in the horse?
tarsocrural joint:
-distal intermediate ridge of the distal tibia
-trochlear ridges of the talus
-lateral and medila malleolus of the tibia
What is a "bone spavin"?
osteoarthritis of the distal hock joints (most commonly tarsometarsal and centrodistal joints)
What is likely the most common hindlimb lameness in horses?
bone spavin (osteoarthritis of the distal hock joints)
When evaluating osteoarthritis, there is a ____ correlation between radiographic severity and clinical signs.
poor
Outline a treatment plan for osteoarthritis in the horse.
-advocate proper BCS
-phenylbutazone
-corticosteroids IA
-corrective shoeing (rolled to, graduated heel to ease breakover)
-surgical arthrodesis
-bandaging
-physiotherapy
-IRAP?
-feed supplements?
-IM/IA glucosaminoglycans
Name some of the problems involved in diagnosing and treating back problems in the horse.
-lack of criteria for defining back pain
-lack of specific clinical signs
-can be 1° or 2°
-inaccessibility of structures involved
-usually insidious onset anc chronic
-frequency of spontaneous recovery
-lack of effective treatments
-emotional responses of rider/owner
What is the tallest dorsal spinous process in the horse?
T6
A horse with sacroiliac joint disease should be ____ work.
kept in
What 3 back conditions are not seen in the horse.
-vertebral displacement or subluxation that can be corrected by manipulation
-intervertebral disc injuries
-peripheral nerve injuries
What is a "hunter's bump"?
The palpable tuber sacrale in the older horse.
What condition is one of the most common causes of thoracolumbar pain in the horse?
Impingement of the Dorsal Spinous Processess ("Kissing Spines")
What is a common cause of roughening of the dorsal spinous process of T10 on radiographs?
Poorly fitting saddle