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16 Cards in this Set

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least damaging time to graze
-dormant season
-except for shrubs
-plant not actively photosynthesizing, won't try to regrow
time to graze that has intermediate negative effect
-when plants initiate growth
-actively growing, has significant demand for photosynthetic material
-conditions for growth optimal
most damaging time to graze
-flower initiation through seed development
-demand for soluble CHOs high
-less favorable conditions for active photosyntheses
grazing system
-controlled grazing management practices that manipulate livestock
-systematically control periods of grazing and rest or deferment
rest
a period of non-grazing for a full year
deferment
a delay of grazing or a period of non-grazing until the seed maturity of the key forage species
how can grazing systems affect livestock production
-increase forage production or quality over time
-make better use of whole resource
-increase opportunities to observe livestock and reduce problems
how can grazing systems affect livestock distribution?
-create smaller pasture
-increase stock density
how can grazing systems affect plant community composition?
-affect evenness of grazing intensity among plants
-even out competition between plants
-provide rest or deferment to benefit some plants
grazing systems CANNOT
-rectify mismanagement (wrong species, incorrect SR, distribution problems)
-achieve range improvement in plant communities that are dominated by long-lived woody plants
continuous
-grazing of specific unit of land throughout whole grazing season or year
-repeated year after year
-actual grazing pressure during critical growing season is relatively light
continuous grazing suited for
-dry flat land
-plant communities adapted to year-long grazing
-pastures with adequate water distribution
deferred rotation
-deferment provided to each range unit (or pasture) on a rotating basis
-improve livestock distribution and improve conditino of forage
deferred rotation suitable for
-riparian areas
-rough topography
rest-rotation
-aka Hormay system
-full year of rest for pastures on rotating basis
rest-rotation suitable for
-rugged terrain
-land not used for crop production or improved pasture