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212 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
UMN dysfunction, weakness, hyperreflexia, positive babinski
cord compression
elderly pt. with PNA, abdominal pain, confusion, hyponatremia
typical labs in sick euthyroid syndrome
total/free T3 decreased, T4/TSH normal
Rx for CML
sharply demarcated, erythematous, edematous, tender skin lesion with raised border
bug in erysipelas
group a strep (strep pyogenes)
treatment for polymyalgia rheumatica
low dose prednisone
intermittent inflammatory arthritis
supplement in spherocytosis
folic acid
major cause of aortic dissection
test in suspected AS
rx for trigeminal neuralgia
what halts progression in ankylosing spondylitis?
regular exercise
how does hyperventilation help to decrease intracranial pressure?
causes vasoconstriction, which decreases cerebral blood flow
acute sarcoid seen in scandanavian, irish, puerto rican
lofgren's syndrome
triad in lofgren's syndrome
arthritis, erythema nodosum, bilateral hilar adenopathy
most sensitive physical exam sign for compartment syndrome
pain on passive extension of fingers/toes
rx for eclampsia
mag sulfate
dysmenorrhea, heavy menses, enlarged uterus
adenomyosis or fibroids
post-mi fever, CP, leukocytosis, mediastinal widening
tx for mediastinitis
drainage, debridement, abx
test for suspected diaphragmatic rupture
barium swallow
structure injured in anterior shoulder dislocation
axilary nerve
digoxin toxicity
anorexia, n/v
elevation of hemidiaphragm on CXR
diaphragmatic hernia
what effect do TRH and serotonin have on prolactin?
stimulate it
how does dopamine affect prolactin?
inhibits it
renal damage caused by acyclovir
crystalluria with renal tubular obstruciton
hypokalemia and HTN, what do you check?
aldosterone and renin levels
'blue toe' syndrome
atheroembolic disease
mottled discoloration of extremities
livedo reticularis
diagnostic test for new SLE with renal involvement?
renal biopsy
most common cause of death in dialysis pts
cv disease
salmon rash, arthralgias, leukocytosis
still's disease
peripheral lung cancer without big smoking association
NPO, broad-spectrum abx, and bleeding
vitamin k deficiency
locations for pressure sores
sacrum, heels, hips
what kind of anemia can MTX cause?
increased risk of what infections with hemochromatosis
listeria, vibrio vulnificus
best OA management
weight loss
how does hydroxyurea help in sickle cell?
increases HbF
hypotonia, hypogonadism, obesity
rx for SVT
IV adenosine
rx for asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy
7-10 days nitrofurantoin, ampicillin, or 1st gen cephalosporin
amorphic breath sounds
lung abscess
blood/eos in stool of newborn
milk protein intolerance
brain tumors and familial adenomatous polyps
colonic polyps with extraintestinal lesions
intestinal hamartomas iwht mucocutaneous melanocytic macules
rx for thioridazine overdose
sodium bicarb
anemia, thrombocytopenia, acute renal failure
tx for TTP-HUS
abnormal d-xylose test that doesn't normalize with antibiotics
whipple's disease
degenerative joint disease associated with what kind of anemia
iron deficiency
drugs that can cause hypothermia
alcohol, benzos, opiates, phenothiazines
rx for toxo infection
muddy brown granular casts
RBC casts
WBC casts
interstitial nephritis, pyelonephritis
fatty casts
nephrotic syndrome
broad/waxy casts
chronic renal failure
test to check in suspected PKU
guthrie test
urine with musty odor
labs in tumor lysis
decreased calcium, increased phos/K/uric acid
dark brown discoloration of colon with lymph follicles shining through as pale patches
laxative abuse
abdominal pain, jaundice, pancreatitis with dilation of intra/extra hepatic biliary ducts
choledochal cyst
what is increased in folate/B12 deficiency
defect in paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria
RBC membrane defect causes increased binding of complement to RBCs, which leads to intravascular hemolysis
signs of multiple myeloma
CRAB: increased Ca2+, renal impairment, anemia, bone probs
rx for prolactinoma
cabergoline/bromocriptine (dopamine agonists)
skin, lung, bone involvement in midwest
thyroid function test changes in pregnancy
increased total T4, increased TBG, normal TSH
confirm dx of CLL
lymph node biopsy
next step in pt< 45 with dyspepsia but without alarming sx
H. pylori breath test
BUN in upper GI bleed
rx for OD with Ca2+ channel blocker
calcium chloride
hearing problems, dull TM, air/fluid levels in middle ear & often seen in HIV pts
serous otitis media
speckled pattern on echo
cause of post-TURP hyponatremia
organisms that cause epiglottitis
h flu, group A strep
in what settings is acaculous cholecystitis seen?
burns, trauma, prolonged TPN, fasting, mechanical ventilation
tramline intracranial lestions
rx for allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis
hypokalemia and hypertension
neonate with jaundice, light colored stools, hepatomegaly, and direct/conjugated hyperbilirubinemia
think about biliary atresia
when does breast milk jaundice usually occur?
2nd week of life
what enzyme is deficient in Crigler-Najjar and Gilbert's?
UDP-glucuronyl transferase (C-N much worse - totally absent)
dx of inhalation injury
what causes roth spots/osler's nodes?
immune complex disease
what causes janeway lesions
septic emboli
what predisposes to pseudogout
hyperparathyroidism, hemochromatosis
cause of non-alcoholic fatty liver
insulin resistance
tx for sphincter of oddi dysfunction
ERCP sphincterotomy
isolated systolic HTN
rigidity of arterial wall
premalignant colonic lesions
villous adenoma, sessile adenoma, size > 2.5 cm
workup for hyperplastic polyps
none; benign
what enzyme is increased in CAH?
increase in BP before 20 weeks gestation
chronic HTN or hyatidaform mole
serum haptoglobin level in hemolytic anemia
mechanism of decreased anginal pain with nitro
dilation of veins and decreased ventricular preload
forward slip of vertebrae in preadolescent with step-off at LS area
marfan body habitus, lens dislocation, fair skin, vascular thrombosis
cystathionine synthase deficiency/homocystinuria
FUO, LAN, arthralgias, weight loss, greasy stools, diarrhea
Whipple's disease
how do you dx whipple's disease
upper endoscopy
criteria for anorexia
body weight >15% below normal, amenorrhea x>3 mos, distortion of body image
indications for blood transusion in trauma
loss >25% (approx. 1500 ml)
hypopigentation, predisposition to CA, anemia
fanconi's anemia
how is fanconi's inherited; what is mechanism
AR; genes involve DNA repair
subluxed radial head
nursemaid's elbow
what coag parameter is increased in antiphospholipid Ab syndrome?
increaesd PTT
rx for nocardia
first line agent in TIA
labs in hypophosphatemic rickets
normal calcium/alk phos/vit D
abdominal distention, susccussion splash, increased MCV, gastric surgery
bacterial overgrowth
rx for pseudomonas
how long for penicillin prophylaxis post-splenectomy
3-5 years
most common site of ulnar nerve entrapment
elbow where nerve lies at medial epicondylar groove
what grade hypertensive retinopathy: slight av nicking
what grade hypertensive retinopathy: copper wiring, av depression
what grade hypertensive retinopathy: silver wiring, flame shaped hemorrhages, exudates
what grade hypertensive retinopathy: flame shaped hemorrhages, exudates, papilledema
most definitive way to dx iron deficiency anemia
bone marrow iron stain
<1 month old with bilious vomiting, abd distention, bloodstained stools
midgut volvulus
what tx for hyperthroid can cause initial exacerbation
radioactive iodine
rx for symptomatic bradycardia
IV atropine
rx for primary biliary cirrhosis
ursodeoxychohlic acid
cyanotic infant with left-axis deviation
tricuspid atresia
what is tricuspid atresia often associated with?
rx for beta blocker overdose
where does finasteride act?
diagnosis of sjogrens
lip biopsy showing lymphoid foci in accessory salivary glands
test for diagnosis of acromegaly
check GH after oral glucose load
varicocele that doesn't empty when patient is recumbent
suspect RCC
drugs that have been shown to decrease mortality post-MI
ACEI, ASA, beta blockers
murmur of tricuspid regurgitation
systolic, increases with inspiration
rx for condylomata accuminata
parkinsonism, autonomic dysfunction, neuro signs
another name for kawasaki's
mucocutaneous lymph node syndroem
tx for gastric MALT lymphoma
triple therapy (omeprazole, clarithromycin/amoxicillin)
rx for HTN in pt with BPH, increased lipids/glucose
alpha blockers
calcium oxalate crystals in urine
ethylene glycol intoxication
increased gastric residues in premie
necrotizing enterocolitis
most common cause of mitral regurgitation
mitral valve prolapse
rx for neuroleptic malignant syndrome
dantrolene or bromocriptine
carcinoid syndrome can lead to what vitamin deficiency?
niacin due to decreased tryptophan
macrocytic red cell aplasia with short stature, webbed neck, cleft lip, shielded chest, triphalangeal thumbs
diamond-blackman syndrome
prominent gastric folds, ulcer behind duodenal bulb
valve abnormality following rheumatic fever
mitral stenosis
most involved segment in ischemic colitis post-aortoiliac surgery
splenic flexure
most common location for DVT casuing PE
ileofemoral vein
most serious complication of peptic ulcer disease
when does intraperitoneal bladder rupture occur?
in pt with full bladder
severe liver disease, hypotension, hyponatremia, azotemia, oliguria with normal UA
hepato-renal syndrome
treatment for hepato-renal syndrome
careful volume loading
tests for lactose intolerance
positive hydrogen breath test, positive clintest, increased stool osmotic gap
gene defect in CF
deletion of 3 base pair encoding for phenylaline in CFTR on chromosome 7
defect in heat stroke
failure of thermoregulatory center
pathophys of mitral regurg in HOCM
systolic anterior motion of MV leaflet
rx for croup
racemic epi
complications of PEEP
alveolar damage, tension pneumo, ventricular failure
rx for mets in prostate CA
gait disturbance, dementia, urinary incontinence
normal pressure hydrocephalus
what blood abnormality can be associated with PNH?
cause of afib in mitral stenosis
LA dilation
what causes molluscum contagiosum?
winter's formula
1.5(HCO3-) + 8
cardiac finding in edward's
ANA, anti-Jo1
cancer most likely to cause SVC syndrome
bronchogenic CA
macrosomia, macroglossia, hepato/renal enlargement, omphalocele, hypoglycemia, hyperinsulinemia
antibodies in hashimoto's
anti-thyroid peroxidase
antibodies in primary biliary cirrhosis
post-MI double apical beat/persistent ST elevation
LV aneurysm
what causes hypotension secondary to epidural anesthesia
blood redistribution/venous pooling
resting tremor
location of post-aspiration abscess
apical segment of RLL/posterior RUL
lupus nephritis
postpartum female with wrist/thumb pain
de quervains
tendonitis of abductor pollicis longus/extensor pollicis brevis
de quervains
amiodarone toxicity
pulonary, thyroid, hepatotoxicity, corneal deposits, bluish/slate grey skin
polyuria, polydypsia, prefer cold water
eval of bronchiectasis
high resolution CT
displaced anterior fat pad
supracondylar fracture, can lead to volkmann's ischemic contracture
cause of pancytopenia in SLE
autoantibodies vs blood cells
rx for uncomplicated cystitis
oral TMP-SMX
rx for pt with HTN and PVD
rx for chronic HCV
IFN and ribavirn
toxicity of cyclosporine
nephrotoxicity, HTN, neurotoxicity, gingival hypertrophy, glucose intolerance, infectoin, malignancy, hirsutism
side effects of azathioprine
diarrhea, leukopenia, hepatotoxicity
side effects of mycophenolate
bone marrow suppression
positive tartrate resistant acid stain
hairy cell leukemia
pruritic, elevated serpiginous lesions on skin after contact with sand
cutaneous larva migrans
worst type of renal disease in SLE patients
diffuse proliferative
mechanism of steatorrhea in Z-E
pancreatic enzymes inactivated
virus associated with mixed cryoglobulinemia
kid with supratentorial tumor
from what type of cells does neuroblastoma arise?
neural crest
from what type of cells does wilms tumor arise?
pseudotumor and dry skin
vitamin A toxicity
treatment for anal fissure
dietary modification, stool softener, anesthetic
antibodies in HIT
vs. heparin-platelet factor 4 complex
giant platelets
defect in bernard soulier
glycoprotein Ib
antibodies in celiac disease
elevated glucose, diarrhea, necrolytic migratory erythema
dark granular pigment on liver biopsy in jewish pt
dubin johnson
most common cause of mitral regurg
mitral valve prolapse
nodular swellings in iris in NF
rx for alzheimers
donepezil, rivastigmine, galantamine, tacrine (acetylcholinesterase inhibitors)
post-MI hypotension, pulsus paradoxus, PEA
free ventricular wall rupture
hawthorne effect
subjects change behavior because they are aware they are being observed