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32 Cards in this Set

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in what part of the intestine are carbs and starches absorbed?
small intestine
in what part of the intestine are fats absorbed?
upper jejunum
where are water and electrolytes absorbed?
mainly small bowel
where are the fat soluble vitamins absorbed?
a,d,e,k: upper jejunum
where is calcium absorbed?
duodenum
in what part of the intestine are carbs and starches absorbed?
small intestine
in what part of the intestine are fats absorbed?
upper jejunum
where are water and electrolytes absorbed?
mainly small bowel
where are the fat soluble vitamins absorbed?
a,d,e,k: upper jejunum
where is calcium absorbed?
duodenum
what is a major precursor to end stage renal disease?
hypovolemia. ex; dehydration, hemmorage, diarrhea/vomiting, burns
most common indicator of acute renal failure?
azotemia
what ekg findings can you expect with hyperkalemia?
peaked t waves, disrhythmia may develop
what are some etiologies of renal failure?
septic shock, heart failure (CHF), pulmonary edema...
a condition in which the mucosal layer of the colon herniates through the muscularis layer?
diverticulosis
a complication of an existing condition of the colon in which there is inflammation and gross or microscopic perforation of the diverticulum.
diverticulitis
what are some common causes of small volume diarrhea?
IBD, crohn disease, UC, infectious disease, irritable colon
what are some common causes of large volume diarrhea?
osmotic diarrhea, lactase deficiency, fat malabsorption, chronic laxative abuse, fecal impaction, ZE syndrome, secretory diarrhea.
an obstruction that results from neurogenic or muscular impairment of peristalsis?
paralytic or adynamic obstruction
what are the most common types of neoplasms of the intestine?
adenomatous polyps (=benign neoplasms that arise from the mucosal epithelium of the intestine)
MC area for adenomatous polyps
rectosigmoid colon
what are the two inflammatory conditions that are defined by "inflammatory bowel disease" ?
chron's disease, ulcerative colitis
what is the blood supply to the liver?
dual. hepatic arter and portal vein
the system for recirculation of bile salts and other substances that travels 18 times through before being expelled in the feces?
enterohepatic circulation
this disorder is characterized by an insidious onset and progressive scarring and destruction of liver tissue. the liver becomes enlarged and takes on a green hue because of the accumulated bile.
primary biliary cirrhosis
what are some of the earliest symptoms of primary biliary cirrhosis?
unexplained pruritus, weight loss, fatigue, followed by dark urine and pale stools. jaundice is a late manifestation.
what is considered to be the end stage of chronic liver disease?
cirrhosis
which clotting factors does the liver synthesize?
factor V, VII, IX, X, prothrombin and fibrinogen
what 3 main factors contribute to the development of cholelithiasis?
-abnormalities in the composition of bile
-stasis of bile
-inflammation of the gall bladder
A syndrome of chronic pain of musculoskeletal origin but uncertain cause. include pain on both sides of the body, both above and below the waist, as well as in an axial distribution (cervical, thoracic, or lumbar spine or anterior chest); additionally there must be point tenderness
fibromyalgia
often referred to as the "wear and tear" arthritis, and is a slowly destructive disorder of the articular cartilage
osteoarthritis
what are the predominantly osmotically active particles in the extra cellular fluid?
Na+ and its attendant anions Cl- and HCO3-