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48 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Define Matter
Anything that occupies space and has mass.
How is "Mass" described?
By its energy equivalence,not its weight
What are the building blocks of matter?
Atoms and Molecules
Define Energy.

Name two forms.
The abilty to do work.

Potential: by virtue of position.

Kinetic: by virtue of motion.
Name five energy forms
1. Chemical
2. Electrical
3. Thermal
4. Nuclear
5. Electromagnetic
What is the Mass Energy Equivalence equation?
E = MC2
What is radiation?
Energy transmitted through space.
What is ionizing radiation?
Any radiation capable of removing an orbital electron from an atom.
Name two main sources of ionizing radiation.
Natural environmental radiation.

Man-made radiation.
Name three components of Natural Environmental Radiation.
1. Cosmic Rays.
2. Terrestrial radiation.
3. Internally deposited
What is the largest contributor to Natural radiation?

How much does it contribute?

198 mrem of the total 300mrem dose that humans receive.
What are the components of man-made radiaion?
1. Medical X-rays 39mrem
2. Nuclear medicine 14mrem
3. Consumer products 10mrem
4. Nuclear power & 2mrem
What percentage of our annual radiation dose is from X-rays?
About 11%
Who discovered X-rays?

Wilhelm Roentgen

November 8th 1895
What type of tube was Roentgen using?
Crookes tube.
What type of plate was Roentgen using?

What effect did Xrays have on it?
Barium Platinocyanide.

When did Roentgen complete his research on X-rays?

When did he receive his Nobel prize?
By the end of 1895.

Name three reasons why the discovery of X-rays is amazing.
1. It was accidental
2. Fewer than 1 dozen people had already seen them.
3. Roentgen investigated all of their properties within 1 month.
Name two general types of X-ray examination.
1. Radiography - pictures.

2. Fluoroscopy - moving images.
What are two electrical factors common to X-ray production?
1. Voltage - kVp

2. Current - mA
What was one development that helped to reduce exposure time?
The fluorescent Intensifying Screen.
Who discovered the Intensfying Screen?
Michael Pupin - 1896
Who developed Double-Emulsion film?
Charles Leonard -1904
What was the substitute for glass film plates?
Cellulose Nitrate.
Who developed the fluoroscope?
Thomas Edison - 1898
Name two fluorescent materials used today.
1. Zinc Cadmium Sulfide.

2. Calcium Tungstate.
What two devices helped reduce exposure to X-rays?

Who developed them?
1. Collimation to restrict the beam.

2. Filtration to remove weak rays.

3. William Rollins
What two major developments transformed X-ray production?
1. The Snook transformer - 1907.

2. The Coolidge Tube - 1913.
What is the main characteristic of the Snook transformer?
Interruptorless high voltage supply.
What are the two main characteristicc of the Coolidge tube?
1. Hot Cathode.

2. A Vacuum tube (not gas-filled).
What properties could be varied in the Coolidge tube?
X-ray intensity and energy.
What device improved contrast?

When was it developed?
The Potter-Bucky Grid.

What device improved fluoroscopy?

When was it developed?
The light amplifier tube - 1946

Image-Intensified Fluoroscopy - 1950
When did diagnostic ultrasound appear?
The 1960s
What is PET and CT?

When were they developed?
Positive Emission Tomography.

Computed Tomography.

In the 1970s.
What is MRI and MEG?
Magnetic Resonance Imaging - 1980s.

What is ALARA?

Name the general approach to radiation safety.
As Low As Reasonably Achievable
for exposure to radiation.

Do not become complacent!
What are the three main principles of radiation exposure control?
1. Time.
2. Distance.
3. Shielding.
Name six radiation-reducing protection devices.
1. Filtration.
2. Collimation.
3. Intensifying Screens.
4. Protective clothing.
5. Gonadal shielding.
6. Barriers.
Who should not be X-rayed?

What should be avoided with other patients?
The abdomin of expectant mothers.

Repeat exposures and unnecessary X-rays.
Name three properties of X-rays.
1. Highly penetrating and invisible form of electromagnetic radiation.

2. Electrically neutral and not affected by electromagnetic fields.

3. Produced over a wide variety of wave lengths and energies.
Name three of the ten commandments of radiation protection.
1. Understand the cardinals of radiation control: Time, Distance, Shielding.

2. Do not let familiarity make you complacent.

3. Never stand in the primary beam.
Name three properties of X-rays.
4. They release very small amounts of heat when they pass through matter.

5. They travel in straight lines.

6. They travel at the speed of light.
Name three of the ten commandments of radiation protection.
4. Wear protective apparel.

5. Wear a radiation monitor outside the protective apron.

6. Do not hold the patient during the examination.
Name three properties of X-rays.
7. They can ionize matter.

8. They cause fluorescence.

9. They cannot be focussed by a lens.
Name three of the ten commandments of radiation protection.
7. Shield the person holding the patient.

8. Use gonadal shields.

9. Avoid examining the abdomin and pelvis of pregnant women especially in the first trimester.
Name three properties of X-rays.
10. They affect photographic film.

11. They produce chemical and biological changes because of ionization.

12. They produce secondary or scatter radiation.
What is the last commandment of radiation protection?
10. Always collimate to the smallest field size appropriate.