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46 Cards in this Set

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What are the three functions of the lymphatic system?
1. To return interstitial fluid from body tissues to the blood.

2. to distribute hormones, nutrients, and waste products from their tissues of origin to the general circulation.

3. to defend the body from infection and disease.
What are the three structures of the lymphatic system?
1. The lymphatic vessels.

2. the lymph fluid.

3. the lymphoid organs.
What do the lymphoid organs do?
Lymphocytes and other protective cells in the lymphoid organs filter foreign matter and pathogens from the lymph.
Lymph resembles blood plasma except that .....?
It has a much lower concemtration of proteins.
What are the two lymph duct systems?
1. Right lymphatic duct. Smaller collects lymph from the right side of the body above the abdomen.

2. Thoracic Duct. Larger. Collects lymph from lower abdomen, pelvis, lower limbs, left half of head, neck and chest.
What are the names of the lymph nodes?
1. Cervical

2. Axillary

3. Lumbar

4. Pelvic

5. Inguinal
What do the lymph nodules filter?
Interstitial fluid not lymph.
Name the tonsil lymph nodes.
1. one pharyngeal (adenoids)

2. Two lingual

3. Two palatine
Give two examples of lymphoid nodule infection.
1. tonsillitis

2. appendicitis
What are lymphoid tissues made of?
Connective tissue and lymphocytes
How do lymphoid organs differ from nodules?
They are separated from the surrouding tissue by a fibrous capsule.
Name three important lymphoid organs.
1. The lymph nodes

2. Thymus

3. Spleen
What is the function of the lymph nodes?
To filter lymph collected from body tissues and return it to the venous system.
What two organisms filter the lymph?
1. Lymphocytes

2. Phagocytes
Where do the lymphocyte cells divide?
In the germinal centers of the lymph node.
What is the location of the Thymus gland?
In the Mediastinum posterior to the Sternum.
What type of cells are resident in the Thymus?
Lymphocyte T cells
How many lobes does the Thymus have?

What is their construction?
Two main lobes divided into smaller lobules.

Lobules have a dense outer cortex and central medulla.
Where do the T cell divide?

Where do they move to?
In the cortex.

To the medulla for distribution.
What else is produced in the Thymic lobules?
Other cells produce Thymic hormones ( thymosins).
Where isthe spleen located?
Between the stomach, the left kidney and the diaphragm.
What is the spleen composed of?
Areas of Red(Blood) and white(lymphocytes) pulp.
What is the function of the spleen?
1. To remove abnormal blood cels and components.

2. Stores iron from recycled red blood cells.

3. Monitors and responds to pathogens and foreign antigens in the blood.
what are the different classes of lymphocytes?
1. T cells (Thymus) 3/4 of

2. B cells (Bone Marrow) 1/8

3. NK cells (Natural Killers) 1/8
WWhat is the function of T cells and B cells?
1. T cells . Some attack foreign bodies, others regulate other lymphocytes.

2. B cells mature into plasma cells. They produce antibodies
What do NK cells do?
Immunological surveillance. They attack foreign, cancer or diseased cells.
What is the life span of lymphocytes?
4 to 20 years.
Where are B and T cells produced?
From stem cells in the bone marrow.
Where are T cells produced?
From bone marrow stem cells that move to the Thymus.

The are acted on by Thymosin to produce the T cells.
What are the body's different types of defenses?
1. Non-specific - general

2. Specific - attack one bacteria or virus but not another.
Name the differnt types of Non-specific defenses.
1. Physical barriers - keratinized skin, glandular secretions

2. Phagocytes - remove cellular debris eg microglia in the CNS and Kupffer cells in the liver.

3. Immunological Surveillance by NK cells.

4. Interferons -small proteins that stimulate normal cells to make antiviral components.


5. Compliment proteins - cause chain reactions like clotting.

6. Inflammation - localised tissue response - swelling, redness, heat and pain.

7. Fever - greater than 99 deg F - can speed up the immune system.
3.
What is the body's repair process called?
Regeneration
Which organ regulates body temperature?
The Hypothalamus
What is Immunity?
The resistance to injuries and diseases caused by specific foreign chemicals compounds and pathogens.
What are the different types of immunity?
1. Innate - inherited and is inborn

2. Acquired - acquired resistance developed actively or passively
What is the difference between Active an Passive immunity?
1. Active - developed naturally or artificially as a result of exposure to antigens.

2. The administration of antibodies from another person. Natural (breast milk) or artificial.
What is the goal of the Immune Response?
To destroy or inactivate pathogens, abnormal cells and toxins.
What is Cell-Mediated Immunity?
Activated T cells mount a direct attack on foreign or infected cells.
What is Antibody- Mediated Immunity?
Activated B cells produce plasma, which produces antibodies.
What are four the different types of T Cells?
1. Cytotoxic - responsible for cell mediated immunity hunt and attack threats.

2. Memory T cells - in reserve for a recurrence of the same threat.

3. Suppressor - depress the responses of other T and B cells. Limit the immune response.

4. Helper T cells -
a. coordinate specific and non-specific defenses.
b. Stimulate production of T cells and B cell antibodies.
When does B cell activation occur?
1. In response to a specific antigen.

2. and to Interleukins secreted by T cell.
What are the two types of responses to antigen exposure?
1. Primary - initial, slow and limited, peaks after several weeks

2. Secondary - more prolonged if the antigen returns. Immediate and massive
Why is the secondary response bigger and longer?
The initial response produced Memory T cells. These can survive for 20 years.
What are the two types of vaccines?
1. Attenuated - weakened bacteria

2. Inactivated - dead bacteria (cell walls)
How does age affect the immune response?
T and B cells are less responsive to antigens.
What causes AIDS?
AIDS is late stage HIV

Human Immuno-Deficiency Virus is a retrovirus. I t carries its genetic information in its RNA.

Several types of immune cells can be compromised but when Helper T cells are infected the total Immune response is impaired.