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23 Cards in this Set

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Multiple, septated, noncommunicating, fluid collections with various sizes and shapes in the renal sinuses without color flow
Parapelvic cysts
Parapelvic Cysts - imaging to differentiate from pelvicaliectasis?
Contrast CT with delayed images


IVP
Parapelvic Cysts - Etiology?
Embryonic rest
vs
Lymphatics
Parapelvic cysts - Rare complications?
Hypertension

Hematuria

Hydronephrosis

Infection
Interconnecting anechoic or hypoechoic fluid-filled spaces in renal sinus with distribution consistent with collecting system anatomy
Hydronephrosis
Hyronephrois - Etiology?
Obstructing stone, mass or crossing vessel
Transvers image with fluid-filled structure located medial to kidney
Extrarenal pelvis
Nonobstructive causes of collecting system dilation?
Visicoureteral reflux
Diuretic state (diabetes insipidus)
Over distended urinary bladder
Prior Obstruction
Megacalyces, Megaureter
Elarged kidneys with many cystic lesions in cortex and medulla
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.
Unilateral(usually) renal enlargement with replaced parenchyma by multiple hypoechoic or fluid filled masses, frequently with central calculus
Xanthogranulomatous Pyelonephritis (XGP)
XGP:
Symptoms?
Sex?
Age?
Etiology?
Symptoms-similar to regular pyelo
Sex- Female more common
Age- 30-60 yo
Etiology - E coli, P mirabilis
Mulitple bilateral renal cortical masses, hypoechoic, minimal through transmission
Renal Lymphoma
Renal Lymphoma: Transmission?
Hematogenous and direct invasion.
ADPK disease: Family Hisory?
50%
ADPK disease: Criteria
Positive Family History and:
-2 cysts prior to age 30
-2 cysts in each kidney at 30-59 yrs
-4 cysts in each kidney after age 60
ADPK disease: Other Organs
Liver 30-60%
Pancreas, Spleen, lungs, breast, brain, pituitary, ovary, endometrium, thryroid
BERRY ANEURYSMS 20-40%
ADPK disease: Complications
Aneurysm rupture
Hypertension
Renal Failure
Hematuria
Polycythemia
Renal Infection Routes
Ascending

Hematogenous
-IV drug abuse
-bacterial endocarditis
-extra urinary infection
Renal Infection US Appearance
Normal
US role in Renal Infection
Intrarenal abscess
Perinephric abscess
Pyonephrosis
Thickened Urothelium DDX
Infection
Calculi
VUR
Resolved Obstruction
Transplant Rejection
TCC
Emphysematous Pyelonephritis:
What?
Who?
Etiology?
Action?
Gas in parenchyma
Usually diabetic females
E coli, Klebsiella
STAT urology consult
Horseshoe Kidney: Associations
VUR
UPJ Obstruction
Wilms tumor