Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/90

Click to flip

90 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Three views used to take pelvis rads
lateral
VD
extended projection
What criteria must be met to obtain correct positioning for an OFa view?
pelvis, femur and stifles must be included in view
pelvic extended view
WHat does OFA stand for and what do they do?
Orthopedic Foundation for Animals
diagnoses hip and elbow dysplasia in dogs
Who invented the Penn Hip method of evaluating hips?
Dr. Gail Smith
Howe do you position for lateral and DPI , PID views of the metatarsus and tarsus?
lateral- PLace din lat recumbancy, affected limb on cassette, other limbs pulled back
Dorsoplantar - sternal, affected limb pulled forward and slightly abducted
Four views tha t can be taken to radiograph stifle joints
lateral
skyline projection of patella
caudocranial
craniocaudal
What neds to be included in a rad of a stifle joint?
patella and femoral condyles
Which view is used to evaluate hips?
ventrodorsal
Why is it important to rotate the stifles medially when taking pelvis rads?
patella are between femoral condyles
In what three cases does positioning for hip rads not have to be perfect?
pelvic abnormalities
dogs with saccoiliac or femoral head luxation
marked degnerative changes of the hips
Which view is preferred if evaluating the heart?
DV thorax
Wich view is preferred when visualizing the lung fields?
VD
Which lateral view is needed for a more acuurate view of the heart?
right lateral
WHich part of the respiratory phase are the thorax views taken on? Abdomen?
Thorax - inspiration
abdominal - expiration
What should be included in abdominal films?
liver, stomach, spleen, large and small intestines
What ar four indications to perform a pneumosystogram?
hematuria
polyuria
dysuria
calculi
What type of contrast media would you use to perform a pneumocystogram? Dosage?
air - 3-5 ml/lb or 10ml/kg
Two ways to help free animal from ingesta?
enema
fasting 12-24 hours
How do you perform a pneumocystogram?
1. Expose survey rads
2. Cleanse adjacent strutures to urethral orifice
3. insert lubed catherter into trigones of bladder
4. aspirate urine
5. infuse lidocaine
6. infuse contrast matter and palapte
7. expose lateral/VD views
A brium series is also know as
Upper GI series
Indications for a barium series?
Vomitting
Small bowel diarrhea
melena
obstruction
What type and dosage of contrast media is used to perform GI series?
iodinated oral contrast - 1ml/lb
30-60% liquid barium sulfate - 3-5 ml/lb
IN what cases would you not use barium?
perforation or rupture - use H2O soluable organic iodides instead
Two ways of administering barium to a patient?
Per os
orogastric tube
How do you perform a barium series?
DV, VD, right and left lateral views immediately after contrast is given; right lat, VD and DV views 15, 30, 60 and 90 minutes after contrast
Another name for IV Urigram?
intravenous pyelogram
What info will a IV urogram give you?
renal function
structure of kidneys and ureters
What structures does a IV urogram contrast?
kidneys
ureters
bladder
Indications to perform IV Urogram?
shape, size, location and margination of kidneys; crude estimate of renal function
what type of contrast media do you use to perform an IV Urogram and dosage?
H2O soluble organic iodid 1ml/lb
Describe how to perform an IV Urogram
1. Fast patient
2. Perform surveyt rads
3. Place IV cath in cephalic or saphenous vein
4. Place in dorsal recumbancy
5. Infuse contrast media
6. Take lat/VD views at 5, 10 and 15 minutes
Contrast media must be approved by whom?
US Food and Drug Admin
Name three categories of contrast medium
Negative - gases
Positive - contrast barium sulfate preps
Positive-contrast iodinated preps
What do positive and negative contrast look like on rads?
positive - absorbs more xrays - whiter
negative - more black in rads
Examples of positive and negative contrast materials
positive - barium, iodide compounds with high atmoic #'s
negative - O2, carbon dioxide
Why is bariu the media of choice when highlighting the GI tract?
It is not easily diluted or absorbed in alimentary tract
When are oily contrasts used
lymphography
Why isn't oily cntrasts used in meylograohy?
oils coagulate in spinal column and do not adhere to lesions
How do you remove barium wihtin a body cavity?
Surgial flushing 6-8 hours after test
Name five gases that er used for contrast studies
air
O2
Carbon dioxide - preferred
nitrogen
nitrous oxide
ONe anesthetic you can use while doing GI series
acepromazine maleate
What is the contrast of choice when doing an esophagography?
liquid barium
How is contrast given in lower GI series?
catheter in rectum, colon and cecum
Two things that lowe GI will detect
intussuception
rectal mass
Urinary contrast studie wills evaluate what structures?
kidneys, ureters, bladder urethra
What clinical signs would you see to sustantiate a urinary tract study
hematuria
proteinuria
crystalluria
polyuria
dysuria
Two ways to fill the urethra
retrograde - positive or negative contrast
antigrade - ONLY positive contrast
Arthrography
evaluates the articular cartilage using pos. and negative (iodide and air) contrast
Angiography
iodide positive contrast media injected into vascular system to see occlusion and lesions of blood vessels
Angiocardiography
contrast is inhected into blood vessels proximal to region of interest (chambers of the heart)
Cholecystography
oral or IV radiogrpahic contrast study used to study the functioning of the bile ducts and gallbladder
Fistulography
positve or negative contrast media to study depth and origin of fistula tract
Myleography
positive contrast media iused to evaluate the subarachnoid space surrounding spinal cord
Pneumoperitoneography
a negative contrast study consisting of the intro of a gas into the peritoneal cavity
Sialography
used of positive contrast to study the salivary ducts and glands
Vaginography
use of positive contrast to study cervix and vaginal vault and reproductive tracts
What are two essentials when taking spinal rads?
vertebral column must be as parallel to tabletop as possible
Disk spcaes must be as perpindicular as possible to the tabletop and in parallel alignment with the central axis of the primary beam
Three lateral views of the cervical spine
extended
flexed lateral
hyperextended
Best type of film to use in dental rads
non-screen
Where is the beam centered for the whole skull photographs?
lateral canthus of eye
What clinical signs would you see to sustantiate a urinary tract study
hematuria
proteinuria
crystalluria
polyuria
dysuria
Two ways to fill the urethra
retrograde - positive or negative contrast
antigrade - ONLY positive contrast
Arthrography
evaluates the articular cartilage using pos. and negative (iodide and air) contrast
What clinical signs would you see to sustantiate a urinary tract study
hematuria
proteinuria
crystalluria
polyuria
dysuria
Angiography
iodide positive contrast media injected into vascular system to see occlusion and lesions of blood vessels
Two ways to fill the urethra
retrograde - positive or negative contrast
antigrade - ONLY positive contrast
Angiocardiography
contrast is inhected into blood vessels proximal to region of interest (chambers of the heart)
Arthrography
evaluates the articular cartilage using pos. and negative (iodide and air) contrast
Cholecystography
oral or IV radiogrpahic contrast study used to study the functioning of the bile ducts and gallbladder
Angiography
iodide positive contrast media injected into vascular system to see occlusion and lesions of blood vessels
Fistulography
positve or negative contrast media to study depth and origin of fistula tract
Angiocardiography
contrast is inhected into blood vessels proximal to region of interest (chambers of the heart)
Myleography
positive contrast media iused to evaluate the subarachnoid space surrounding spinal cord
Cholecystography
oral or IV radiogrpahic contrast study used to study the functioning of the bile ducts and gallbladder
Pneumoperitoneography
a negative contrast study consisting of the intro of a gas into the peritoneal cavity
Fistulography
positve or negative contrast media to study depth and origin of fistula tract
Sialography
used of positive contrast to study the salivary ducts and glands
Myleography
positive contrast media iused to evaluate the subarachnoid space surrounding spinal cord
Vaginography
use of positive contrast to study cervix and vaginal vault and reproductive tracts
Pneumoperitoneography
a negative contrast study consisting of the intro of a gas into the peritoneal cavity
What are two essentials when taking spinal rads?
vertebral column must be as parallel to tabletop as possible
Disk spcaes must be as perpindicular as possible to the tabletop and in parallel alignment with the central axis of the primary beam
Three lateral views of the cervical spine
extended
flexed lateral
hyperextended
Sialography
used of positive contrast to study the salivary ducts and glands
Best type of film to use in dental rads
non-screen
Vaginography
use of positive contrast to study cervix and vaginal vault and reproductive tracts
What are two essentials when taking spinal rads?
vertebral column must be as parallel to tabletop as possible
Disc spaces must be as perpindicular as possible to the tabletop and in parallel alignment with the central axis of the primary beam
Where is the beam centered for the whole skull photographs?
lateral canthus of eye
Three lateral views of the cervical spine
extended
flexed lateral
hyperextended
Best type of film to use in dental rads
non-screen
Where is the beam centered for the whole skull photographs?
lateral canthus of eye