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39 Cards in this Set

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Types of diagnostic radiography (x-rays)
routine (plain), enhanced (contrast), tomography, fluroscopy, mammography, computerized axial tomography (CAT), special procedures
what do x-rays provide?
anatomical pictures
the radiographic densities
gas (black), fat, fluid, bone (white), metal, the greater amount of energy absorbed, the less x-rays reach the film and the white the image
risks associated with x-rays
ionizing radiation, complications related to contrast (pregnancy, radiation sickness),
complications related to special procedures (perforation, infection, embolic event)
factors that may interfere with x-rays
metallic objects, retained contrast material, overlying structures or bowel contents, position, movement
how do x-rays give pictures?
Based on ability of x-rays to penetrate tissues and organs differently according to tissue density, pass high voltage electrical current through a tungsten filter in a vacuum tube
two basic views of x-rays
anteroposterior(AP)
lateral
X-rays are used for routine examination of...
chest, skull, abdomen, and bones
Fluroscopy
Observe motion, angiography procedures, exposes patient to more radiation
Tomography
sequence of x-ray films is obtained, allows examination of a single layer of tissue, CT has taken over
CT scan
passing x-rays through body organs at many angles
contrast studies can be administered by
orally, rectally, intravenously, percutaneously, inhalation, urinary
most commonly used contrast medium
barium sulfate for GI studies, organic iodine for vascular and renal, iodized oils for myelography
risk factors to nephrotoxicity
elevated serum creatinine, dehydration, CHF, older than 70, concurrent administration of nephrotoxic drugs
xeroradiography
uses photoelectric developing process (not photochemical like typical x-rays), used for soft tissue evaluation
digital subtraction angiography
type of computerized fluroscopy, venous or arterial catheterization is performed to visualize arteries (carotid, cerebral)
risks of radiation exposure
somatic effects (blood cell problems)
genetic effects (MR)
fetal effects (birth defects)
contraindications of x-rays
pregnancy
iodinated dye (IVP)
arterial or venous puncture (cardiac catheterization)
barium (upper GI)
potential complications of x-rays
allergic reaction
embolic stroke
infection
problems with catheter insertion
renal failure
lactic acidosis
interfering factors with x-rays
metallic objects
barium
fecal material or gas in bowel
improper positioning
excessive movement
information necessary for radiologist
test requested
history
differential diagnosis
must have reason to request it
reasons to request chest x-ray
pulmonary, mediastinum, pleura, chest wall, diaphragm
reading the chest x-ray, what to look at
make mental picture
soft tissue
lungs
blood vessels
special interest areas
mediastinum
chest wall
normal cardiothoracic ratio
< 50%
pleural mass
looks like a snowball stuck to thoracic wall
reasons to request abdominal x-rays
abdominal pain, organs, intraluminal air, extraluminal air, abdominal calcifications, soft tissue mass, free fluid, bowel wall, artifact
types of abdominal calcifications
gallbladder wall, straghorn calculi, nephrocalcinosis, phleboliths, atherosclerosis
bowel wall thickening
chrome's disease
reasons to request skeletal x-rays
fractures, dislocations, infection, arthritis, metastasis
reasons to request contrast studies
GI studies
genitourinary studies
cardiac/vascular studies
myelography
other/parenteral
fistulogram
arthrography
dangers of contrast use
latex allergies
barium sulfate
iodine containing materials
non-ionic materials
apple core lesion
associated with colon cancer, see with barium enema, swallow
tomography
focus on specific structure, at specific level
fluroscopy
motion of organs, movement of contrast material (barium swallow)
mammography
watch breast cancer
CAT scan
best examination of chest and abdomen, drawback is exposing to lots of radiation, looking foot to head, replaced plain x-rays
reasons to request CT scans
diagnosis (brain, chest, abdomen, bone, blood vessels, soft tissue)
procedure guidance, treatment determination (stages of cancer), follow-up
reasons to request special procedures x-rays
cardiac catheterization
intervention procedures
angiography
complications of special procedure x-rays
perforation
infection
embolus