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38 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
4 Primary Image Quality Factors
is the amount of blackness on the processed film image.
What is the primary controlling factor of film density
Other factors influence density on film image include kV, part thickness, chemical development time/temperature, grid ratio & fil-screen speed.
Anode Heel Effect
the intensity of the radiation emitted from the cathode end of the x-ray tube is greater than that at the anode end.
Radiographic Contrast
-the difference in density on adjacent areas of a radiographic image.
-the greated this difference, the higher the contrast; the less the density differences, the lower the contrast.
Different shades of gray.
Long-scale or short-scale contrast
What is the secondary controlling factor for contrast?
*general rule of thumb - states that a 15% increase in kV will increase film density, similar to doubling mAs.
recorded sharpness of structures on the image. AKA "detail" recorded detail, image sharpness or definition.
Geometric Factors tath control of influence resolution.
*Focal Spot Size
*OID (Object Image recptor Distance)
The greatest deterrent to image sharpness is?
misrepresentation of object size or shape.
Four primary controlling factors of distorition are:
1. SID (Source image receptor distance)
2. OID (Object image receptor distance)
3. Object image receptor alignment
4. Central ray alighment/centering
SID (Source Image receptor Distance)
at greater SID, less magnification occurs than at a shorter SID.
OID (Object Image receptor Distance)
the closer the object being radiographed is to the image receptor, the less the magnification and shape distortion and the better the detail or resolution.
Object IR (Image Receptor) Alignment
alignment or plane of the object being radiographed in relation to the plane of the image receptor.
Central Ray Alignment
least possible distortion occurs at the centeral ray. Must be align properly
Digital Images
a numeric representation of the x-ray intensities taht are trasmitted through the patient. Viewed on computer monitor and are referred to as a soft-copy images.
systematic application of highly complex mathematical formulas
Milliamperage (mA)
controls the number of x-rays produced
controls the number of x-rays times the duration to the exposure.
Kilovoltage (kV)
controls the penetrating power of the x-rays with all radiographic imaging digital or film-screen systems
Wide Latitude
wide range of acceptance of exposure factors to produce an acceptable image.
The factors used to evaluate digital image quality include:
1. Brightness 2. Contrast
3.Resolution 4. Exposureindex
5.Exposure index 6. Noise
Exposure Index (Degital Imaging)
a numeric value that is representative of the exposure the image receptor received.
random disturbance that obscures or reduces clarity.
Scatter Radiation
is a potential source of noice that can be controlled by the use of grids and correct collimation.
changing or enhancing the electronic image in order to improved its diagnostic quality.
Post-processing options
Windowing, smoothing, magnification, edge enhancement, subtraction, image reversal, annotation.
4 Types of Digital Imaging Technologies in use today?
1. Computed Tomography (CT)
2. Digital Fluoroscopy (DF)
3. Computed Radiography (CR)
4. Direct Digital Radiography (DR)
Picture Archiving & Communication Systems (PACS)
P-Picture - digital images
A-Archiving - "electronic" storage of images
C- Communication: routing(retrieval/sending) and displaying of the images.
S- System -specialized computer network that manages the complete system.
the principle that radiation exposure should be kept as low as reasonably achievable.
a reduction in intensity of the x-ray beam due to absorption and scattering.
Units of Radiation Dose
Rad and Rem
Rad - patient dose
Rem - radiation protection
Roentgen (R)
radiation exposure in air measured by the amount of ionization in a given unit of air
Annual dose limit
the dose limiting recommendation for occupationally exposed workers is 5 rem (50 mSv) of whole-body effective dose(each year)
Cumulative dose limit
comulative lifetime ED limit fo an occupationally exposed workers is 1 rem (10mSv) times the years of age.
ex. 50 yr tech dose 50 rem(500 mSV).
Alara Principles
1. Always wear a film badge or monitoring device 2. Restrint devices 3. practice used of close collimation, filtrtion of primary beam, optimum kV techniques, high speed screens and film & min. repeat exams 4. 3-part cardinal rule - time,distance, shielding
Skin Entrance Exposure
where radiation first strikes the body.