• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/101

Click to flip

101 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Panoramic imaging is also called ___
pantomography
Panoramic imaging is an (intra/extra) oral technique
extra
In panoramic imaging, the image receptor is (intraoral/extraoral) and the source is (intraoral/extraoral)
extraoral, extraoral
True or False, it is currently not possible to digitize panoramic images
False, can be digital or conventional
What teeth are not included in a panoramic image.
None, they're all included!
Where should the canine light be positioned on the patient?
on the mesial of maxillary canine
What line goes from the lower border of orbit to superior point of tragus?
frankfort line
The frankfort line connects what 2 points?
the lower border of orbit to superior point of tragus
True or False, the frankfort line makes a 15 degree angle with the floor
FALSE! it should be parallel to floor
Other than the canine light, what other two lights help orient the patient?
mid-sagittal plane light
horizontal plane light
Are panoramic images higher or lower patient dose than an FMX?
lower (= about 4 BWs)
Image receptor and source move at the same time in the (same/opposite) direction
opposite
The object of interest is located in an invisible area (point or plane) called what?
image layer
Which of these is not an advantage of panoramic imaging?

1. convenience
2. broad anatomical coverage
3. low radiation dose
4. very detailed image
5. short imaging time
6. readily available
4. very detailed image is NOT correct.

Panos cover a large area but do not have the detail of individual shots like in an FMX
About how long (in min) does it take to set up and take a pano?
3-4 min
True or False, because it lacks fine detail, a pano is a poor initial screening tool
False, it DOES lack detail but it's fine for initial screening
True or False, Panos require very extensive infection control
False, very minimal
True or False, Panos are typically well accepted by the patient
True
What teeth tend to overlap often in Panos
premolars
There is usually a magnification of about __-__% with Panos
20-30
Panos have a high (initial/lifetime) expense
initial
True or False, Panos are not very sensitive to patient position
False, very sensitive! If not positioned correctly, you can get a host of errors like magnification, geometric distortion, elongation, overlap, etc.
a narrow vertical beam of about __degrees rotates in the ___ plane around the rotation center
-7 to -10 degrees, horizontal plane
The rotation center is invisible and located (intra/extra) orally
intra
The structure of interest should be between the film and the ___
rotation center
True or False, the rotation center does not stay in the same place
True
Structures near the (source/receptor) appear diffused or blurred and ghost-like
source
A rotograph has __ (#) rotation centers
1
A Panorex has __ (#) rotation centers
2
A Orthopantomograph model (OPI) has __ (#) rotation centers
3
A Penelipse or Versaview has __ (#) rotation centers
many... it's a continuous image utilizing a continually sliding rotating center
A orthopantomograph model (OP2 and OP3) as well as Cranex has __ (#) rotation centers
many... continuous image utilizing a combo of stationary and moving rotation centers
If a rotating narrow beam is used with a stationary image receptor, then magnification in the horizontal direction will be (less/more) than in vertical direction. Thus, a (stationary/moving) image receptor is used to equalize magnification
more, moving
The focal trough/image layer is known also as the zone of ___
sharpness
True or false, focal spot and focal trough are the same
False
Objects (inside/outside) the focal trough are not sharp and appear fuzzy on the radiograph
outside
The focal trough is a (2/3) dimensional curved zone in which structures are reasonably well defined
3
Vertical and horizontal magnification will only match if the object is within the __ __ of the focal trough
central plane
The focal trough should approximate the shape of what?
the jaw
The width of focal trough is (directly/invsersely) related to distance from center of rotation to central plane of image [known as 'effective projection radius']
directly
The longer the 'effective projection radius', the (thicker/thinner) the image layer
thicker
Image layer thickness is (directly/inversely) proportional to the width of the long narrow slit beam
inversely
The narrower the beam, the (wider/narrower) the image layer
wider
The "radius" is the distance between what two things?
rotation center & center of image layer
A (shorter/longer) radius and (wider/narrow) beam BOTH result in a wider image layer
longer, narrower
The focal trough needs to be narrow in the (anterior/posterior) and wide in the (anterior/posterior)
anterior, posterior
The image layer is shaped to center the jaw and is (within/outside) the jaw
within
True or False, some companies have programs that allow you to adjust the focal trough per patient
True
When an object is displaced to the LINGUAL side of the focal trough, towards the (source/image receptor), the beam passes more (slowly/quickly) through the object compared with the image receptor and the structure is (compressed/elongated) horizontally
source, slowly, elongated
When an object is displaced to the BUCCAL side of the focal trough, towards the (source/image receptor), the beam passes more (slowly/quickly) through the object compared with the image receptor and the structure is (compressed/elongated) horizontally
image receptor, quickly, compressed
When an object is displaced towards the (buccal/lingual) aspect, it appears to be vertically magnified
buccal
There is a certain degree of magnification in all images between __ and __%
25-30%
True or False, in panoramic imaging, the magnification is consistent through all structures in the radiograph
False, it varies depending on it's position in the arch and focal trough
___, ___ structures and ___ are imaged as if they were vertically split in half down the midsagittal plane with each half folded outwards
jaws, maxillofacial, spines
True or False, in panoramic imaging, half of the nose appears on one edge and the other half appears on the other edge
False, in the middle
Structures are generally (flattened/condensed) in panoramic images
flattened
In a panoramic image, the posterior wall of the max. sinus is (posterior/anterior) to the malar process (aka zygomatic process)
posterior
(real/ghost) images form when the object is between the rotation center of beam and the image receptor
real
(real/ghost/double) images occur only with midline structures
double (technically, you have two 'real' images, fyi)
True or false, in a double image, you have two real images with similar proportions and positions on the opposite side
True
What 5 objects frequently produce double real images?
hard/soft pallate
Palatal tori
body of hyoid bone
epiglottis
cervical spine
(real/ghost) images are formed when the object is between the x-ray and rotation center [aka 'behind' the rotation center]
ghost
True or False, the rami can form ghost images
True
Ghost images tend to be (blurry/sharp) and (reduced/magnified)
blurry, magnified
Ghost images are typically formed on the (same/opposite) side and are a bit (higher/lower) on the image receptor than they really are
opposite, higher
What 5 structures typically form ghost images?
cervical spine
horns of hyoid bone
ramus of mandible
hard palate
neck chains, ear rings, necklaces, etc.
Which 'air space' should not been seen and how can it be avoided?
palatoglossal air space (patient should put tongue to roof of mouth and this will go away)
Which of these does NOT attenuate x-ray beams?

soft tissue
air
air
Air spaces appear (white/black)
black
Which air space is superimposed over the angle of the mandible?
oropharyngeal
What technique deficiency caused the error here?
Not continuous rotation center
Is the patient positioning correct, too far forward, or too far back on these? (all different)
green - normal
blue - patient too far FOWARD
orange - patient too far BACK
What is indicated by the 5 colored arrows?
orange - posterior (lateral) wall of max sinus
blue - max sinus
purple - nasal septum
yellow - hard palate (floor of nasal fossa)
red - mandibular canal
Red arrows are the same object, what are these? Blue arrow is what?
red - nasal turbinates and meati
blue - zygomatic arch
What is indicated by the black arrows?
mandibular canal
What is indicated by the purple arrow?
Mandibular foramen
What is indicated by the green arrow?
mental foramen
What is indicated by the green arrows?
Mental ridge (protuberance)
What is indicated by the 5 colored arrows?
blue - glenoid fossa
red - articular eminence
green - sigmoid notch
orange - condyle
purple - mastoid process
What is indicated by the yellow arrows?
Cervical spine (C-3)
What is indicated by the colored arrows?
yellow - posterior wall of max sinus
purple - anterior nasal spine
green - zygomatic process
What is indicated by the colored arrows?
green - infraorbital rim
purple - malar process
blue - pterygomaxillary fissure
red - medial wall of max sinus
yellow - inferior border of max sinus
What is indicated by the black arrows?
styloid process
What is indicated by the white outline on the left?
stylo-hyoid ossicles
What is indicated by the colored arrows?
yellow - coronoid process
purple - ethmoid sinus
green - infraorbital canal
What is indicated by the colored arrows?
purple - cervical spine
green - sigmoid notch
blue - coronoid process
orange - infraorbital rim
red - articular eminence & glenoid fossa
What is indicated by the black arrows?
external oblique ridge
What RO object is indicated by the black arrows?
internal oblique ridge (mandibular canal would be RL)
What is indicated by the black arrows?
Genial tubercle (lingual foramen is within)
What is indicated by the red arrows?
soft palate
What is indicated by the purple arrows?
hyoid
What is indicated by the orange and purple arrows?
purple - hyoid
orange - epiglottis
What is indicated by the white arrows?
epiglottis
What is indicated by the orange arrows? (Hint: NOT anterior nasal spine)
Ghost image of cervical spine
What is indicated by the orange arrows? (hint: ghost image)
ghost image of inferior border of mandible
Which is the ghost and which is the real?
orange - real
purple - ghost
On the top, the (smaller/larger) image is real

On the bottom, the (outside/inside) image is real
top - smaller is real
bottom - outside is real
What is indicated by the purple arrow?
soft palate
What is indicated by the colored arrows?
purple - soft palate
orange - soft tissue of neck
What AIR SPACES are indicated by the colored arrows?
orange - palatoglossal
blue - nasopharyngeal
purple - oropharyngeal (glossopharyngeal)
What is indicated by the colored arrows?
blue - ghost of hyoid
purple - styloid