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43 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The effect of x rays on human is the result of interactions at the ____
atomic level
1. The human body is predominately composed of:
a. water
b. carbohydrates
c. proteins
d. nucleic acids
a. water
2. Radiation induced abnormalities may be assessed during which phase of the cell cycle?
a. prophase
b. metaphase
c. anaphase
d. telophase
b. metaphase
3. Which of the following is not considered a somatic cell?
a. red blood cell
b. neuron
c. oocyte
d. connective tissue
c. oocyte (egg cells) sex cells
4. Which of the following tissues is most radiation resistant (or less radiosensitive)?
a. nervous
b. cartilage
c. lymphoid
d. skin
a. nervous
5. Which of the following blood cell types is most sensitive to radiation exposure?
a. red blood cells
b. platelets
c. neutrophils
d. lymphocytes
d. lymphocytes
Why should bone marrow be shielded during imaging studies?
Bone marrow is highly sensitive to radiation.
. All the hereditary information about an individual is contained in the ______ cells.
a. germ
b. brain
c. blood
d. skin
a. germ
28. Which of the following is least radiosensitive?
a. undifferentiated
b. precursor
c. stem
d. mature
d. mature

A,B and C are all the same thing
27. _____ is the primary concern of late effects of radiation on humans.
a.shortening of life span
b.central nervous system syndrome
c.genetic damage
d.cancer/leukemia
d.cancer/leukemia
The irradiation of lymphocytes is of primary concern due to possible compromise of:
a.the immune system
b.the urinary system
c.the nervous system
d.the digestive system
a.the immune system
Which response to radiation would be considered a late effect?
a. CNS syndrome
b. eye damage (cataracts)
c. GI syndrome
d. hematologic depression
b. eye damage
What response to radiation was often seen in the pioneers of radiation science?
a. erythema
b. congenital malformation
c. diminished growth
d. neonatal death
a. erythema - skin burns
constancy has to do with
Homeostasis
codon has to do with
Sequence of base pairs
Parenchyma is
functioning tissue
Most radiation injury is repairable. The protein involved in repair and recovery is/are:
a.hormones
b.enzymes
c.antibodies
d.antigen
b.enzymes
Somatic cells are specific to:
a. the individual b. the offspring of the individual
a. the individual
Which division process is associated with somatic cells?
a.meiosis b.mitosis
b.mitosis
Which of the following relates to the radiosensitivity of organs?
a. the function of the organ in the body
b. the rate at which cells mature in the organ
c. the inherent radiosensitivity of the cell
d. all of the above
d. all of the above
Hormesis suggests ____
a little radiation is good for you
The breaking down of macromolecules into water and carbon dioxide is:
a. anabolism
b. catabolism
c. metabolism
d. homeostasis
b. catabolism
Exposures as low as ___ rads will produce a response in highly radiosensitive tissues such as lymphoid tissue.
a. 2
b. 20
c. 200
d. 2000
c. 200
___ is considered to be the most critical and radiosensitive target molecule.
a. RNA
b. DNA
c. tRNA
d. mRNA
b. DNA
Which is more radiosensitive?
A. oocytes B. spermatogonia
B. spermatogonia
The characteristic of radiation which contributes to radiation responses in the body is:
a. claudication
b. defecation
c. ionization
d sterilization
c. ionization
The production of large molecules from small___
anabolism
Approximately __ % of the molecular composition of the body is protein.
15%


80% water
15% protein
2% lipids
1% carbohydrates
1% nucleic acid
1% other
Immediate effects of radiation
1. death
2. organ dysfunction
3. tissue damage
Leukocytes are created in
bone
Lymphocytes are produced in
lymphatic tissue
Carbohydrates are also called ___
saccharides
The pituitary , adrenal , thyroid , parathyroid , pancreas and gonads are all examples of ______ _______
endocrine glands
An invasive or infectious agent is called ____
an antigen
Molecules that exercise regulatory control are _____
hormones
Most of the RNA is contained in a round structure called the _______
Nucleolus
The _____ _______ is a channel or a series of channels that allows the nucleus to communicate with the cytoplasm.
Endoplasmic reticulum
This is sometimes called the engine of the cell.
Mitochondria
Human cells can be killed with a dose of less than _____
100 rad (1 Gy<t>)
Which phase of mitosis is the period of growth ?
Interphase
During ____ , the nucleus swells and the DNA becomes more prominent and begins to take structural form.
Prophase
During ___ phase the chromosome is transformed from having 2 chromatids to having 4 chromatids attached to a centromere
S
Genetic cells begin either the same number of chromosomes as somatic cell -- ____ pairs
23 pairs (46 chromosomes)