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74 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
According to Mills, what is the connection between racism and sociology?
The sociological imagination seeks to eradicate deeply embedded, systematic ills by understanding our relationship with societal structures.
What is social rearticulation?
the recurring historical process of rupturing and reconstructing the understandings of race in this country (p. 31 RTCL)
Define racial formation.
The process by which social, economic and political forces determine the content and importance of racial categories, and by which they are in turn shaped by racial meanings (p. 12 RTCL)
How do Omi and Winant define race?
an unstable and ‘decentered’ complex of social meanings constantly being transformed by political struggle (p. 15 RTCL)
What is racial etiquette?
A set of interpretive codes and racial meanings which operate in the interactions of daily life. Rules shaped by our perception of race in a comprehensively racial society determine the ‘presentation of self,’ distinctions of status and appropriate modes of conduct. ‘Etiquette’ is not mere universal adherence to the dominant group’s rules, but a more dynamic combination of these rules with the values ad beliefs of subordinated groupings (p. 13 RTCL)
How does Zinn define racism?
Combination of inferior status and derogatory thought (p. 48 RTCL)
What is hegemony?
The dominance of one group over other groups, with or without the threat of force, to the extent that, for instance, the dominant party can dictate the terms of trade to its advantage; more broadly, cultural perspectives become skewed to favor the dominant group. Hegemony controls the ways that ideas become "naturalized" in a process that informs notions of common sense” (often associated with the theorist Antonio Gramsci)
AA - How do the authors define the ghetto? (Page 18).
set of neighborhoods exclusively inhibited by members in one group
AA - Characterize racial/residential dynamics pre 1900. What about 1900-1940? (Page 26).
Industrialization led to dramatic urban environment changes. Southern black migration. Before it was semi-integrated, then not so much. Factory racially segregated towns.
AA - Are racial lines parallel to or do they transcend class lines? Explain (Page 30).
transcend class lines. Segregation not based on classes. Educated blacks together with poor uneducated blacks.
AA - There are three main distinctions between “Black Ghettos” and “Immigrant Enclaves.” What are they? (Page 32 and 33).
1. Black ghettos - everyone is black. Euro enclaves were mixed.
2. Not all Euros lived in enclaves.
3. Moved out of ghettos when blacks stayed.
AA - Massey and Denton say that segregation was NOT a result of “Black housing preferences or a natural outcome of the migration process.” What is their reasoning? (Page 33).
was deliberate and thought out. impenetrable. kept middle class blacks down when wanted out. was forced upon.
AA - Discuss the first “tool” that was used to construct and perpetuate the ghetto. How was this used? (Page 34). The second? (Top of page 36). The third? (Page 36).
communal and individual violence based on skin color. restrictive covenants. zoning restrictions.
AA - Describe the process of Blockbusting (Page 37).
realtors bought few houses, put in black families. whites moved of block filled with blacks.
AA - How did realtors exploit residential segregation? How did they benefit from perpetuating the process? (Page 38 and 39).
placing more than one black family in a house where only one white family lived - earned double.
AA - How did World War II affect the racial dynamics of the cities in America? (Page 43).
house building stopped. black migrants crowded into urban areas. popukation densities in ghettos rose. spatial isolation increased.
AA - What happened in the post-industrial era? Did the color line change? (Page 45).
didn't change because isolation was increased. war jobs no longer available. suburbinization and "white flight"
AA - Explain the process of “redlining.” (Page 51).
home owners loan corp. designed for zones. red zone was the lowest. said districts were bad and house property decreases
AA - How did the Federal Housing Administration encourage the suburbanization process? (Page 53).
guaranteed loans and collateral by private banks. extended loan and rates and interest. helping out the single families, hurting the inner city housing. led to buying homes.
AA - Describe urban renewal. (Page 56).
cleaning up the city. moving black people. displacing the blacks. encouraged white upperclass to stay.
AA - Describe the function of the public housing high rise. (Page 57).
concentrates the population into a segregated poverty stricken group
AA - What steps were taken to address housing segregation? (Page 59).
the current commission, federal housing program to spread out the ghetto. FHA 1968, effort to turn things around.
AA - What do Massey and Denton say about the most modern and economically developed cities? (Page 65).
higher level of black segregation.
AA - How do Black segregation rates compare to Asian and Hispanic segregation rates? (Page 67).
blacks twice as isolated and 60% more segregated than the other two.
AA - What is hypersegregation? (Page 74). How does this relate to the five spatial arrangements?
segregation on four of the five dimensions. is so high it multiplies the effects.
1. unevenness
2. isolation
3. clustering
4. concentration
5. centralization
AA - What percent of African Americans live under intense segregation? How do Massey and Denton characterize this degree of isolation? (Page 77).
1/3 are under intense segregation
AA - What are the two central activities on behalf of the White majority that has contributed to the construction of the ghetto? (Page 79).
1. discrimination in entering new neighborhoods
2. avoidance of neighborhoods that are racially integrated
AA - Do Massey and Denton frame segregation as a class issue or a race issue? How so? (Page 85).
a race issue no matter their income, they're still highly segregated
AA - What do they say about attitudes in the Black community about integration? White attitudes? How are the two different? (Page 88-90).
whites say they want it but are unwilling in practice
AA - Do they suggest that violence is or is not a continued factor in segregation? Explain. (Page 90)
yes, violence is still a continued factor
AA - How much integration do White communities tolerate? Is their a threshold? (Page 92).
definitely less than 50%, after about 1/3 they atart moving out
AA - According to Massey and Denton, are racist real estate practices continuing? Explain (Page 98-99)
AA - In addition to real estate companies, what other institutions contribute to housing segregation? (Page 105).
banks and financing
AA - According to Massey and Denton, where are banks the least invested? (Page 107).
neighborhoods in transition with black in-migration
How does the value of housing within a community represent a self-fulfilling prophecy? What causes fluctuation in real estate prices? (Page 94).
What is racial “steering?” (Page 100).
How can Massey and Denton be sure that the discrimination is based on race rather than class? (Page 106).
How do Caribbean Hispanics provide a natural experience with respect to segregation practice? What does this prove?
Bonilla-Silva - What is a "racialized social system?" (p. 151 RTCL)
Bonilla-Silva - What advantages are given to the dominant group?
economic, occupational, political, social, psychological
Bonilla-Silva - What does he mean by hegemonic?
Consent rather than coercion – becomes common sense
Hegemony controls the ways that ideas become "naturalized" in a process that informs notions of common sense”
In a way, this is more dangerous than over racism because it puts a normal or natural face on inequality
Bonilla-Silva - What are some examples of consent / coercive racial practices?
Bonilla-Silva - Which do minority groups experience in contemporary American society?
Bonilla-Silva - What does Bonilla-Silva argue happens when overt racial discrimination is eliminated?
Bonilla-Silva - Consider racism post slavery and post civil rights era? Did it cease to exist, was it mitigated, or was it simply transformed?
Bonilla-Silva - What does he say about race and its relationship to class and gender?
Race class and gender are all forms of hierarchy that often work together but each have a distinct meaning – a distinct hierarchy – thus, one cannot claim that racial division is simply a function of class division.
Comparing the effect of race while rooting out the effect of class and gender.
Surveys are problematic
Does not address why the discrepancy exists in the first place
Bonilla-Silva - What is the practice of “controlling” for class and gender?
Bonilla-Silva - What is his critique of this practice?
Bonilla-Silva - When does the racialization process begin?
when the dominant group defines the "other" in opposition to itself
Bonilla-Silva - What if a subordinate group then continues to define itself in opposition to the dominant group? Is there a different dynamic?
Bonilla-Silva - What two options does the minority group have?
Minority group can hold on to their distinctiveness and continue to face prejudice/discrimination, or deny their cultural distinctiveness.
Bonilla-Silva - “Acting White” What does this mean? How does it illustrate Bonilla-Silva’s point?
Bonilla-Silva - What does he mean when he says “racialization takes on a life of its own.”
The racialization process creates a solidified structure in a society that is largely independent of “whether or not individual members of the races want it to” (page 155).
Bonilla-Silva - What does he mean by “racial contestation?” (Page 155).
The struggle for systemic changes regarding position at one or more levels
Bonilla-Silva - What does he believe about the cure for racism?
He says racism is not a belief, it is a systemic issue. The change, he suggests, will not take place in our hearts and minds, but the structural rooting out of racialization.
Bonilla-Silva - How does he view education as a solution to racism?
Bonilla-Silva - Does he believe that racism is withering away?
“Unlike analysts who believe that “racism” has withered away, I argue that the persistent inequality experienced by Blacks and other racial minorities in the United States today is due to the continued albeit changed existence of racial structure” (Page 158)
Bonilla-Silva - What are four things he believes about racism today?
1. Increasingly covert.
2. Embedded in normal operations and institutions.
3. Void of direct racial terminology.
4. Invisible to most Whites.
What is the unprejudiced non-discriminator's (all weather liberal) relationship to the American creed?
adhere in practice and belief - neither prejudice nor discriminatory
Explain the "fallacy of group soliloquies." (p. 120 RTCL)
only hang out with like minded people, ideas not spreading to other groups
Explain the "fallacy of unanimity." (p. 121 RTCL)
false beliefs that opinion is larger than it is. can't see the larger issue.
Explain the "fallacy of privatized solutions." (p.121 RTCL)
content with own behavior, sees no need to solve the problem. sees it as an individual problem.
What does Merton present as some solutions to the fallacies of the unprejudiced non-discriminator?
enter into other groups. mix with others of mixed opinions.
Merton describes the unprejudiced discriminator (fair weather liberal) as a person of expediency. What does this mean? Give some examples.
doesn't speak up against racism
How is the unprejudiced discriminator (fair weather liberal) the most "amenable to the cure?" (p. 121 RTCL)
He wants to be cured, has a split conscience and so wants to be cured. leads to cooperation.
How does Merton suggest that an unprejudiced discriminator (fair weather liberal) can be drawn into the "all weather liberal" group? (p. 124 -125 RTCL)
long regimen of a favorable social climate leads to tranformation
What is the prejudiced non-discriminator's (fair weather illiberal) relationship to the American creed? (p. 122 RTCL)
conforms to creed because he must. reluctant to conform. racism in himself.
Give some examples of the prejudiced non-discriminator (fair weather illiberal).
employer discriminate until and action is taken up against him.
prejudiced non-discriminator's (fair weather illiberal) - How does this type of discrimination show/hide itself? Can it be measured in a community by the degree of overt racist incidents? (p. 123 RTCL)
covert racism, only let others who feel the same know their beliefs
prejudiced non-discriminator's (fair weather illiberal) - What are the two treatments that Merton suggests for this group?
1. change in institutional and legal environment
2. drawn into ethnic groups for purpose of tolerance
What is the prejudiced descriminator's (all weather illiberal) relationship to the American creed? (p. 123 RTCL)
they believe their way is the right way. don't think of it as a deviation.
prejudiced descriminator (all weather illiberal) - Give some examples of this type of individual.
"patriotic" - to hate others and love oneself one ought to treat others different
prejudiced descriminator(all weather illiberal) - According to MErton, does this individual believe he/she is engaging in low conduct? Why or why not? (p. 124 RTCL)
no, interpretating creed for themselves
When treating the all weather illiberal, what does Merton say is the most important thing to consider? (p. 124 RTCL) Why does this matter? (p. 126 RTCL)
legal actions need to stay strong, will step gradually to fair weather illiberal and so forth