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83 Cards in this Set

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How many bones are there in the human body?
206
What is the Diaphysis?
The long portion of the bone, longer than it is wide.
The skeletal system is comprised of 3 type of connective tissue
Bones-hard elements of the skeleton
Ligaments-dense fiberous connective tissue that binds bones together
Cartilage-specialized connective tissue consisting primarily of fibers of collagen and elastic in a gel-like fluid called ground substance
Epiphysis
Enlarged nob at each end of a diaphysis
Diaphysis
Compact and spongy to store bone marrow and to be less weight.
-Kids have less Red Blood Cells
Osteoblasts
Builder lays down new bones
Osteoclasts
Bone destroyer, bone cutter
Osteocytes
Mature bone cytes
Chondrocytes
Cartilage cells
What happens when bones develop?
-Cartilage is made
-Ossification
-Growth plate left
Ossification
Cartilage to bone
-In order to grow
There is blood in bone tissue
What allows bones to grow?
-Growth Hormone
-Sex Hormone-growth spirts
Bone Remodeling
Change in the bone structure due to the change in activity
-walking for about a year will change your bones
-calcium and Vitamin D
Blood clot results in....
Hematoma
Cartilagenous Callus
Replaces the hole in the bone
Bony Callus
After it clots and cartilage replaces it
-Remodeling
Osteoporosis
Osteoclasts are working
Sprain
Streched or torn ligament. Often accompanied by internal bleeding and bruising and swelling
Hormones
After menopause womens' estrogen level goes down and they get more fractures
Arthritis
Joint inflammation
How many joints are there in the human body?
230
Muscle Contractions
Jerking sensation when you're trying to fall asleep
What are the 5 arrangements of the sketal muscles
-Origin
-Insertion
-Synergistic
-Antagonistic
-Tendons
Origin
The end of the muscle that is attached to the bone that does not move during muscle contraction
-Closest to the center
Insertion
The end of the muscle attached to the bone that moves when the muscle contracts.
-Further away from the body
-More mobile
-Often over a joint
Synergistic
work for a common function, work as a group
Anatgonistic
work opposite from another muscle
-Allows another muscle to relax
Tendons
A cord of dense fiberous connective tissue attaching muscle to the bone.
Muscle Structure
muscle>fascicle>muscle fiber cell>Myofibrils>Sarcomeres>Myofiaments
Fascicle
Muscle cell bundles
Muscle fiber cell
A single muscle strand. A connective tissue fiber is a thin strand of extracellular tissue.
Myofibrils
Makes up muscle cell/fiber
Sarcomeres
Contractile unit of a muscle, unit in the Myofibri
Myofilament
Proteins
-actin
-myosine
Muscle Contraction
_Sliding filament model
VERY IMPORTANT
Where does the ATP come from?
-Stored ATP only lasts 10 sec.
-Creatine phosphate w/ ATP last 45 sec.
Muscle Relaxation
-Nerves stop stimulation
-Calcium Sequestered(brought back to the sarcoplasmic reticulum)
-cross bridges(between myosin/actin) stop being formed
Rigors Mortis
When someone dies eventually ATP is used up, but cross bridges are still attached, making the body stiff bc there is no ATP to break cross-bridges apart
Slow Twitch
main use-endurance activites
Metabolism-aerobic
blood vesscles-more(for oxygen)
color-Red (dark meat)
Myoglobin-yes
Stored Glycogen-some
Mitochondria-more
Fast Twitch
main use-Quick burst of energy
Metabolism-mostly anaerobic
blood vesscles-less
color-white(white meat)
Myoglobin-NO
Stored Glycogen-more
Mitochondria-less
aerobic training
-Slow twitch fiber
-Biking running, swimming
Increases Endurance, blood vessels, mitochondria, myoglobin
Anarobic training
Fast Twitch Fiber
More strength, weight training, bulk up the cells you have not increase the number
Increases:
proteins, myofibrils, muscle strength, muscle mass, muscle size
Cardiac Muscle
Striations
Arrangement similar to skeletal muscle
Smooth Muscle
No Striations
Actin & Myosin on outside of cell
Steriods
-related to testosterone
-illegal if not perscribed
-bulks up muscle masss
-used by both males and females
Muscular Dystrophy
A group of inherited muscle-destroying diseases
Tetanus/Botulism
Produce potent chemical
Could kill the world with one pint; bad canning
Tetanus-lock jaw
Muscle cramps/soreness
Ion imbalance/sacromeres tear
Fascitis
Skeletal muscles, can inflame and the tissue doesn't heal. Most common in your foot
What are the 3 functions of blood??
Transportation-our matrix(plasma)
Regulation-your temperature plasma and platlets
Defense-white blood cells
What 4 things make up the blood?
red blood cells(44%)
Platlets and white blood cells (1%)
Plasma(55%)
Where do formed elements come from?
Red bone marrow
Stem cells
cells that are immature and indfferentiated
Characteristic of red blood cells??
Shape-dislike, very thin, able to fold
organelles-mature, have no organelles, no nucleus but still eukaryotic
Oxygen & CO2-oxygen binds to iron
Metabolism-anarobic
Hematocrit-a measure of red blood cells
How many RBC do we make per second?
2 million
RBC Production
-from red marrow
-old and worn out one removed by spleen and liver
-regulated eythropietin
Eythropoietin
Made by the kidney's stimulates RBC production in the bone. If oxygen gets low then the epo gets kicked out.
Blood Doping
Increase in hematocrit
-Extreme athletes use it to increase pressure.
-Your blood thickens and you can clog your artieries.
RBC Problems
Anemia-Low iron
Carbon monoside poisoning-takes oxygen from surface
-blood poisoning-bacteria gets into your blood
Sickle cell disease-Helps African's fight malaria
White Blood Cells
-helps cells to fight to stay clean
-made in red marrow
-nucleated
-can circulate and/or move into tissue
-most mobile cell
White Blood Cell Classification....
Granulcytes
-Short lived
-Neutrophils(60-70%)
-Esonophils(2-4%)
-Basophils(.5-1%)
White Blood Cell Classification....
Agranurocytes
Lack, w/out, long lived
-Monocytes(3-8%) Big cells w/ moonshaped nucleus
-Lymphocytes 20-25% small cells with large nucleus.
White Blood Cell Specific Classification....
Neutrophils
-Short lived (6-72 hrs.)
-most abundant
-nonspecific phagocytosis-cell eating, eats anything
-first to drive during inflammatory response
-move into tissue
White Blood Cell Specific Classification...
Platelets(Thrombocytes)
-Live 5-9 days
-fragments of megakaryocytes
-clogs blood
-regulated by thrombopoietin
How do we clot our blood?
-Blood vessile spasm
-platelet plug is formed
-blood clot forms
-Thrombin converts blood protein into fibrin
Antigen
Evoke an immune response
Antibody
proteins typically Y-shaped
-proteins made by your body in a response to an antigen.
Blood type
A
Antigen-A
Antibodies-B
Blood type
B
Antigen-B
Antibodies-A
Blood type
AB
Antigen-A&B
Antibodies-none
Blood type
O
Antigen-none
Antibodies-A &B
Determination of blood types
-Surface proteins(call antigens)
-presence of antibodies
What is the most common donor?
Blood type O
Rh Blood Type
Rh+-have D antigens
Rh- don't
Rho GAM
women are given drugs around 28 weeks. Injections D Antibodies, don't stay very long.
Basophils
-Live (3-72 hrs.)
-Role in inflmmatory
-carries Histamine
-very rare
White blood cell whose granules stain well with basic dye. It releases histamine and other substances during inflammation.
Eosinophils
-Not very common
-Live 8-12 days
-responses against parasitic infections(worms)
White blood cell
Attack parasites and function in allergic responses.
Monocytes
-Can live for several months
-Move into tissue-macrophages pick up and show to others.
-nonspecific phagocytosis

DOESN'T cause mono!
Lymphocytes
-Long lived(years even life time)
-Relatively common(40-50%)
-migrate into lymph nodes
-Made into B-cells, T-cells, and NK cells
T-cells use
Antibodies
B-cells use
an indirect action
Diseases of WBC's
-Leukemia-cancer of the white blood cells
-bone marrow filling up with nonfunctional cells
-mononucleosis
Mononucleosis
infects a lymphocyte
-basis of the immune system