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130 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Cinderella's Prince had trouble recognizing her in her home, as opposed to the ballroom where they met. This observation reflects
the power of the situation.
Social psychology is the scientific study of
how people think about, influence, and relate to one another.
An integrated set of principles that explain and predict observed events is called
a theory.
A researcher interested in learning whether young people whose fathers are absent from the home are more likely to engage in delinquent behavior. she compares the arrest rates of boys whose fathers are absend with those of boys whose fathers are present in the home. This is an example of
a correlational study.
The study of naturally occurring relationships among variables is known as
correlational research.
The main advantage of field research is that:
more genuine behaviors can be observed.
Cause-effect relationships are studied using:
experimental research methods.
Research has shown that tall grave markers (a status symbol) are
positively correlated with longevity.
Variable X is correlated with Variable Y. Which of the following could explain this correlation?
X causes Y.
Y causes X.
A third variable causes or influences both X and Y.
The great strength of correlational research is that it
studies factors in real-world settings that cannot be manipulated in the laboratory.
An experimenter exposes participants to different temperature levels to determine its effect on aggression. Temperature is the
independent variable.
In an experimental study of the effects of fear on the desire to affiliate, fear would be the ______ variable.
independent variable.
The two essential ingredients of a social psychological experiment are
control and random assignment.
Manipulating one or two factors while holding others constant is the essence of
experimental control.
When the laboratory experiment is superficially similar to everyday situations, the experiment is said to be high in
mundane realism.
When the laboratory experiment deeply absorbs and involves participants, the experiment has
experimental realism.
American Psychological Association ethical principles dictate that potential research participants should be told enough about the experiment to
be able to give their informed consent.
All of the following are ways to control for extraneous (confusing) variables in an experiment, except for
conducting a pilot study first.
The main advantage of survey research is that:
a large sample can be studied in a short amount of time.
Putting participants in one of two conditions by flipping a coin illustrates
random assignment.
Two contradictory criticisms faced by social psychology are that its findings are obvious and that
its findings could be used to manipulate people.
The hindsight bias contributes to the idea that
the results of psychological experiments are mere common sense.
The hindsight bias affects the way we view decision makers, making us more likely to
blame them for making obviously bad choices.
When evaluating intelligence errors after the 9/11 tragedy, hindsight bias makes us more likely to:
blame authorities for making what now seem like bad choices.
Amy reads a research article and feels like it didn't tell her anything she didn't already know. Amy's experience. illustrates the
hindsight bias.
The I-knew-it-all-along phenomenon can often lead students of social psychology
to underprepare for an exam.
The conclusion to be drawn from research on the hindsight bias is that our common sense is usually
right after the fact.
If psychologists were to find that alcohol consumption increases aggression, this discovery would likely seem obvious and unsurprising to college students because
students, like everyone else, have a tendency to exaggerate their ability to have foreseen the outcome of past discoveries.
The most researched topic in psychology today is
the self.
How you answer the question "Who am I?" defines your
self-concept.
The beliefs about self that organize and guide the processing of self-relevant information are called
self-schemas.
The tendency to process efficiently and remember well information related to oneself is called the _____ effect.
self-reference.
The self-reference effect illustrates that
our sense of self is at the center of our world.
Jessica attends a friend's wedding wearing last year's fashions. The "spotlight effect" suggests that
Jessica will self-consciously assume everyone is noticing her dress.
Western cultures are to ______ as Asian cultures are to _______.
the independent self; the interdependent self
A magazine ad for a hair-care product says, "She's got a style all her own." This ad is most likely to appear in
America.
For someone with a collectivistic, interdependent sense of self, happiness comes with
positive social engagement.
Imagine being in a car accident that left you paralyzed from the waist down. Research by Gilbert and Wilson suggests that in five years you will most likely
have learned to to cope with the changes and be about as happy as you were before the accident.
The notion that we often have implicit attitudes that differ from our explicit attitudes defines the concept of
dual attitudes.
The tendency to perceive oneself favorably is known as
self-serving bias.
Jenny failed her last chemistry test. Which of the following conclusions would be most representative of a self-serving bias on Jenny's part?
"I think the test questions were ambiguous and confusing."
Self-serving bias is strongest for qualities that are
subjective
Nearly half of all marriages end in divorce. Yet in a study of 137 people applying for a marriage license, most rated their own chance of divorce as zero. This finding illustrates
unrealistic optimism.
Jack cheats on his income taxes and consoles himself with the thought that everyone else probably cheats a little, too. This rationalization represents
the false consensus effect.
Which of the following is most likely to trigger a false uniquenes effect in your thinking?
volunteering to give blood
Those who drink heavily but use seat belts will _______ the number of other heavy drinkers and _______ the number of seat belt users.
overestimate; underestimate
According to research by Abraham Tesser, who among the following is likely to have the strongest motive for self-esteem maintenance?
an older child whose younger sibling is talented and capable.
Which of the following is TRUE of the self-serving bias?
It can protect people from depression.
A potentially maladaptive consequence of the self-serving bias is that
others may see you as egotistical and deceitful.
When groups are comparable, most people consider their own group to be
superior
a person's overall sense of self-worth constitutes his or her
self-esteem.
Locus of control is a belief that
what determines life outcomes.
The sense that one is competent to do something constitutes one's
self-efficacy.
People with strong feelings of self-efficacy are likely to be more
persistent.
The extent to which people perceive their lives as internally controllable by their own efforts and actions or as externally controlled by chance or outside forces constitutes their
locus of control.
"Sometimes I feel that I don't have enough control over the direction my life is taking." This statement reflects
an external locus of control.
If you believe your fate is determined by ______, you probably have an ______ locus of control.
NOT your own abilities; external.
NOT personal mo; external.
NOT fate or luck; internal
NONE OF THE ABOVE
Martin Seligman notes a basic similarity between learned helplessness in dogs and ______ in people.
depression.
The experience of repeated uncontrollable bad events contributes to
learned helplessness.
Barry Schwartz (2000) argues that individualistic cultures marked by _______ tend to cause decreased life satisfaction and increased clinical depression.
"an excess of freedom"
Heatherton and Vohs (2000) threatened some undergraduate men, but not others, with a failure experience on an aptitude test. In response to the threat,
high self-esteem men become more antagonistic.
According to the textbook, the healthiest attitude about oneself
mixes positive thinking with the realism to discriminate what we can and cannot control.
Dogs who learn a sense of helplessness by being taught they cannot escape shocks
later fail to take the initiative in another situation when they can escape punishment.
Bandura emphasizes that self-efficacy improves as a result of
the experience of success.
_______ researchers study how we explain others' behavior.
Attribution
Assuming that the students in an 8:30 A.M. class are "silent types" and the students in a 7:00 P.M. class are a bunch of extroverts would be an example of
the fundamental attribution error.
The fundamental attribution error tends to occur for
others' behavior
Glenda has turned in an assignment late, so her instructor concludes that Glenda is lazy and unmotivated. The instructor's assumption is an example of
a dispositional attribution.
You notice that Devon, a classmate, has failed a quiz. You may be committing the fundamental attribution error if you conclude that
Devon is a lazy student who probably did not study.
Jones and Harris had students read debaters' speeches either supporting or attacking Cuban leader Fidel Castro. When the students were later told that the debater's position had been assigned, they
concluded that to some extent the speech reflected the speaker's true beliefs.
We are less likely to commit the fundamental attribution error when explaining ____ behavior.
our own
We tend to automatically believe that the scripted behavior of an actor reflects
inner dispositions.
One reason why the fundamental attribution error occurs is that when we observe others acting we tend to focus on
the person and not the environment.
Our Western worldview predisposes us to assume that _____ cause events.
People
According to the text, the major reason for learning about social thinking and examining our errors and biases is to
develop our capacity for critical thinking.
Our tendency to judge the likelihood of an event on the basis of how readily we can remember instances of its occurrence is called the
availability heuristic.
The incorrect belief that the letter "k" appears more often as the first letter of a work than as the third letter can be understood in terms of
the availability heuristic.
Dottie has the illusory belief that a correlation exists between washing her car and the occurrence of rain in her area. According to research, Dottie is much more likely now to notice when
it rains and she has just washed her car.
Dice players who throw softly to get low numbers and harder to get high numbers are demonstrating
the illusion of control.
Although Jason once scored a 270 in bowling, he has subsequently been unable to beat that record no matter how much he practices. His experience may be partially understood in terms of
regression toward the average.
When baseball's rookie-of-the-year has a more ordinary second year, we shouldn't be surprised. This fact is easily explained by
regression toward the average.
The tendency for one's expectations to evoke behavior that confirms the expectations is called
self-fulfilling prophecy.
Snyder, Tanke, and Berscheid had male students speak by telephone with women they thought were eiher attractive or unattractive. When judges later analyzed the women's comments, they found that
the women thought to be attractive spoke more warmly than the other women.
Attitudes are _______ that can influence our reactions.
beliefs and feelings
Which of the following refers to a set of examples or research investigations that illustrate the power of self-persuasion--of attitudes following behavior?
role playing
the foot-in-the-door principle
interracial desegregation
The term _______ refers to actions expected of those who occupy a particular social position.
role
The results of Zimbardo's Stanford prison simulation indicated that
playing the roles of prisoners and guards can embitter and harden even compassionate people.
You've just been promoted to the role of supervisor at work. You feel awkward and uncomfortable in your new position. Research on role-playing suggests
over time you will get comfortable with your new role.
A sales representative comes to your home and asks you to try a water filter system for a week, absolutely free, so you agree. He returns the next week and offers you an expensive contract to continue to rent the system and you agree. You are most clearly a victim of
the foot-in-the-door phenomenon.
You agree to buy a new computer at a terrific price. Then the sales associate charges you for software you thought was included in the original package. You've been a victim of
the low-ball technique.
Findings on racial attitudes and behavior suggest that
changes in racial attitudes have followed changes in racial behavior.
Which of the following is NOT an effective component of a brainwashing program?
offering large bribes for compliance with requests.
What is an effective component of a brainwashing program?
1) gradually escalating the demands made of the prisoner.
2) eliciting active participation from the prisoner rather than allowing him to be a passive recipient of propaganda
3) having prisoners write self-criticism or utter public confessions
Cognitive dissonance theory proposes that we experience _______ when our beliefs and behaviors are _______.
tension; inconsistent
Darwin proposed the process of natural selection, whereby
nature selects traits that best equip organisms to survive and reproduce in their environment.
The study of how natural selection predisposes adaptive traits and behavior is called
evolutionary psychology.
Evolutionary psychology
highlights our universal human nature.
Psychologists refer to the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next as
culture.
The cultural perspective is to _______ as the evolutionary perspective is to _______.
social norms; human adaptability
Norms
describe what most others do.
are rules for accepted and expected behavior.
prescribe proper behavior.
Although there are many unoccupied tables and chairs in the cafeteria, Rudolph decides to sit at the same table in the chair right next to James. James feels uncomfortable because Rudolph has violated
his personal space.
The characteristics people associate with male and female define
gender
Compared to women, men
are more likely to commit suicide.
Compared to men, women
have a somewhat better sense of smell.
During the 1970s, many scholars worried that studies of gender differences might
reinforce stereotypes, and that gender differencese might be interpreted as women's deficits.
In groups, men talk more _______, whereas women talk more _______.
to give information; to show support
When surveyed, women are far more likely than men to describe themselves as having
emphathy for others.
When they want empathy and understanding, men turn to ______ and women turn to ______.
women; women
In essentially every society, men, relative to women,
are socially dominant.
In conversations, men are more likely than women to
interrupt others.
smile less.
stare more.
Across cultures, men
strive to offer women external resources and physical protection.
prefer women with physical features that suggest fertility.
are more likely to initiate sexual activity.
Higher than normal levels of testosterone have been found in
violent male criminals.
boisterous fraternity members.
National Football League players.
Compared to boys, girls in countries everywhere spend more time ______ and less time ______.
helping with housework; in unsupervised play
According to the text, what term best describes the relationship between biology and culture?
interaction
A very strong cultural norm dictates that males should be taller than their female mates. This height norm is cited in your text as evidence that
biology and culture interact to develop gender role norms.
Although control participants were correct about line-length judgments more than 99 percent of the time in Asch's conformity study, his naive participants conformed to the incorrect judgments of others in _____ of the responses.
37 percent
The results of Asch's study are startling because the study did not employ any
open, obvious pressure to conform.
When Milgram conducted his first series of experiments with a sample of forty 20- to 50-year-old men, he found that 26 (65 percent) of them
went to 450 volts.
Which of the following was found to be a factor that influenced obedience in Milgram's research?
the victim's emotional distance
the closeness of the authority
the presence of other defiant teachers
In Milgram's studies, obedience was highest when
the learner could not be seen and could not see the teacher.
The conformity and obedience studies discussed in the text illustrate
the power of the situation.
According to Milgram, the most fundamental lesson to be learned from his study of obedience is that
even ordinary people, who are not particularly hostile, can become agents of destruction.
People who are motivated and able to think through an issue are best persuaded by
central route processing.
An automobile manufacturer who produces advertisements associating his cars with a young, attractive family enjoying picnics is most clearly using
peripheral route persuasion.
A computer manufacturer who produces advertisements comparing his product with other competing models on features and prices is most clearly using
central route persuasion.
Physical appeal and similarity are two important factors that determine a communicator's
attractiveness.
Janis and his colleagues found that if Yale students were allowed to consume peanuts and Pepsi while reading persuasive messages, they
were more convinced by the messages.
If you can't make a strong case to persuade, it would be a good idea to try to
put your audience in a good mood.
Fear-arousing messages are more effective if they
also tell people how to avoid the danger.
In the study of age differences in attitudes, there is very little evidence for
life cycle effects.