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119 Cards in this Set

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What did Cromwell do to government?
Depersonalized it.
What was the Privy Council of 1540?
The chief executive council that exercised the King's issues.
Who replaced Gardiner as the King's secretary?
Cromwell
After Cromwell's death, the council decided on 2 secretaries rather than 1--what were the jurisdictions of those secretaries?
Secretary of the South (S. Eng, Wales, Europe) & Secretary of the North (N. England, Scotland, Netherlands, Holy Roman Empire)
What was one of the most important tasks of the secretaries?
Management of foreign affairs
What was the great fear of the Reformation Parliament?
That Catholics would try to invade/overthrow England
What were Cromwell and Warham on the lookout for?
Protestant Alliances
What was Catherine of Aragon buried as?
Princess of Wales (rather than Queen of England)
Why did Henry VIII have Ann Boleyn arrested and accused of adultery?
She miscarried a son
Who convicted Ann Boleyn of the charges the King made against her?
Her uncle, Duke of Norfolk.
Why did Archbishop Cranmer label the King's marriage to Ann as null and void?
Because of his former relationship with Ann's sister.
Who was Henry VIIIs third wife?
Jane Seymour
What was the name of the son that Jane Seymour bore?
Edward (Jane died shortly after his birth)
When was the longest interval that Henry spent without a wife?
Between his 3rd and 4th marriages.
Who did Cromwell have painted?
His sister, Anne
What was the painting of Anne of Cleves structured around?
Her hands, because she was homely.
What happenned to the marriage of Henry VIII and Anne of Cleves?
It was annulled
Who was Henry VIIIs 5th bride?
Catherine Howard
What was Cromwell forced to resign as?
King's secretary
What did Cromwell do without permission?
Ordered the arrest of a Bishop
Who informed the King of what Cromwell did?
Norfolk and Gardiner
What did Cromwell still do while he was imprisoned?
Advised King on how to dissolve his marriage with Anne of Cleves
What happenned the same day that Henry VIII married Catherine Howard?
Cromwell was executed
Where did Catherine Howard spend her youth?
In the household of her step-grandmother
What did Catherine Howard do before she became Queen (that no one was aware of)?
Had affairs with at least 2 men.
What did Catherine Howard do once she was Queen with one of the men she had an affair with?
Made him her personal secretary
Who heard rumors about Catherine Howard and informed the King?
Cranmer
How did Catherine Howard die?
She was executed
Who was Henry VIIIs 6th wife?
Catherine Parr (widow)
What was unique about Catherine Parr?
She was older than Henry's other wives were and had no hope for bearing children
After James V died in defeat, who did his Queen give birth to?
Mary, Queen of Scots (at 6 days old)
By Henry VIIIs death, how much crown land had been sold (to finance wars)?
2/3
What did Catherine Parr bring in for the first time?
Henry's other children--this was the first semblance of a family for Henry VIII
What did Parliament give permission give Henry VIII to do regarding succession?
Authority to determine succession to the crown following Edward.
What was Henry VIII doing when he died?
Holding the hand of Archbishop Cranmer.
What was Henry VIIIs plan for a future alliance with Scotland?
Marry his son, Edward, to Mary, Queen of Scots
What was Henry's plan for succession?
If Edward died without heirs, dtr Mary should receive Crown; if Mary died without heirs, dtr Elizabeth should receive Crown. (all died without heirs)
What was the debasement of coinage?
Coins were made with more alloy than precious metal and that resulted in accelerating inflation because prices kept rising in order to maintain the same proportion of precious metal as they were used to
What was the Treaty of Greenwich?
Henry VIII released Scottish prisoners and persuaded them to agree to the marriage of Edward and Mary. (They agreed but when they returned to Scotland they refused)
What was the War of the Rough Wooling?
Invasions of Scotland by the English to try to enforce the marriage of Edward and Mary
What were the last years of Henry VIIIs life devoted to?
Planning for the succession to the Crown (dtrs Mary and Elizabeth had been bastardized)
What were the problems the country was facing?
Finances/inflation, international relations, the French were in Scotland and collaborating with them, and the question of succession to the Crown
Where was Mary Queen of Scots evacuated to?
France (so the Scots could avoid the marriage)
Who did Henry VIII ban for succession to the Crown?
The descendents of his older sister, Margaret. Succession should be passed instead to heirs of his younger sister, Mary Tudor.
Who did Henry VIII go to York to meet?
His nephew James V of Scotland
Who seized control and wanted to be head protector of Edward?
His uncle, Edward Seymour, Duke of Somerset
Who were the nominees for Henry's council of 16 to act as Regency for Edward?
New Men who were known to be sympathisizers with the Protestants
Why did James V not appear to meet Henry VIII?
He joined with France for war with England
What was unique about Edward VIs reign?
He was the 5th and last regency
Who took control as Edward's Lord Protector?
Edward Seymour (created Duke of Somerset)
Who aided Somerset?
John Dudley (elevated to Earl of Warwick)
What did Somerset repeal?
Henry VIIIs treason laws
What was the name of Somerset's large townhouse?
Somerset House
What gave the council excuse to overthrow Somerset?
2 rebellions that Dudley assisted in.
Who was Edward VI under the influence of after Somerset was executed?
John Dudley-Duke of Northumberland
What did Northumberland want to establish?
Personal autocracy and Dudley dynasty
What did Northumberland convince Edward to do?
Change future succession so that Mary would not succeed.
Who did Northumberland want to succeed Edward?
Lady Jane Grey
What were the major issues during Edward's reign?
Wars against the Scottish & French, economic problems, and the question of future religion
What battle did Somerset defeat the Scottish in?
Battle of Pinkie
What was the English demand of the Scottish?
That Mary Queen of Scots would marry Edward VI. (Scots opposed and Mary evacuated to France)
What was the treaty in which the English had to agree to the French occupation of Scotland?
Treaty of Boulogne
What were the rebellions of western England against?
1st Book of Common Prayer--because the government seemed to be changing everything
What were the rebellions in eastern England against?
Economic clauses and issues--the poor seemed to be permanent in the east
Who was one of the first Protestant preachers in England?
Hugh Latimer
What did Latimer stress and want to maintain?
Stressed need for social justice and wanted to maintain tillage on farms and education for children
What did the 1st Parliament under Edward do?
Passed savage poor law in which the able-bodied poor could be branded and if couldn't find work, would be reduced to slaves
What was the enclosure movement?
Taking of the land that had been commonly tilled and enclosing it.
Who condemned enclosures and issued a survey of 17 questions for the localities?
Somerset
Where were the agricultural riots?
Norfolk and Norridge
Who suppressed the riots, had many rebels slaughtered, and helped to overthrow Somerset?
Dudley
In 1549 where was the House of Commons given permanent residence?
London--the Chapel of St. Stephens in Westminster.
Where did representatives and opponents sit in the House of Commons?
Reps on the right side of the speaker and opponents on the left side--evolution of the 2 party system
What is the major feature of Edward VIs reign?
Changes in religion
What did the English reformers accept?
Lutheran doctrine of justification on faith alone-goal was to get rid of false doctrine
Who was heavily influenced by Lutheranism and Calvinism?
Cranmer
Who established institutes of Christian Religion?
John Calvin
What was Calvin's doctrine?
Doctrine of Predestination
What is the term that derived from Calvin's congregations that were linked together?
Presbyterianism
What is the term for a change in the substance that refers to bread and wine and their represenation of Jesus?
Transsubstantiation
How did the Protestants view the taking of the bread and wine?
As commemerative rather than literal
What city did Calvin create a theocracy in that became a Protestant Rome?
Geneva
What class did Calvinism appeal to in Europe?
The middle class
What were the series of injuctions issued in 1547?
The clergy had to introduce some English into the church services.
What were the 2 books issued in 1547?
1. English New Testament
2. Book of Homilies
What was eradicated? (Cranmer had already violated this anyway)
Celibacy
What was the only form of legal worship that could be followed in England that was written by Cranmer?
1st Book of Common Prayer
What imposed penalties on the clergy who refused the Book of Common Prayer?
Act of Uniformity
What was the Latin term for the order of services?
Sarum Usage
What was different about the 2nd Book of Common Prayer?
It was much more radically Protestant and was an open attack on the pretentions of the Bishop of Rome and the term Mass was dropped.
What was the new name for Communion?
The Lord's Supper
What were the 42 Articles (by Cranmer)?
They defined the theology of the new church in England.
Who succeeded in restoring Catholicism?
Mary
Who wrote "Foxe's Book of Martyrs"?
John Foxe
What did Foxe nickname Queen Mary?
"Bloody Mary"
What did Northumberland do after Edward's health started declining?
Married his son to Edward's cousin, Lady Jane Grey
What were the 2 major problems of Mary's reign?
1. Questions of religion
2. Marriage
What was Charles V advice to his cousin Mary?
Punish rebels, be cautious of the French, and be a good English woman.
Who did Mary marry?
Phillip II (Charles V son)
Who was released and created Lord Chancellor of Mary?
Gardiner
What were the terms of the council regarding the marriage of Mary to Phillip?
Phillip would be given title of King and share in governing the country but Mary alone could appoint officials who must be English and England was not expected to war against France with Spain. Also, any children born would inherit England, Netherlands, and old Burgundian lands. If Mary died 1st, Phillip would no longer have a role except as Regent if they had children.
Who was the major rebellion of 1554 led by?
Sir Thomas Wyatt
Who was arrested and taken to the Tower where nothing could be proved against her?
Princess Elizabeth
What was Mary convinced of that she was showing symptoms of?
Pregnancy (was actually psych disorder)
What was Phillip's goal?
To bring England into the last stages of Spain's war against France
What was captured by France that resulted in England no longer holding any lands in France?
Calais
What did Mary issue to get rid of Edward's religion changes?
Act of Repeal
What were the demands of the royal injunctions Mary issued?
Must accept transsubstantiation and if had married, must put away wives
Who returned to England as Papal Legate to restore England to Roman communion?
Reginald Cardinal Pole
What did Mary's 2nd Parliament reinstate?
Heresy Laws
Where did most executions take place?
London
How did Mary improve the financial situation?
Managed crown lands better, there was no further debasement of coinage, and were massive cuts in expenditure
What were France and Spain forced to do one year before Mary's death?
Declare bankruptcy
What was established to expand English trade with Russia?
Muscovy Company
What is mercantilism?
a nation's strength/prowess should be measured by gold/silver in treasury--export more than import
What did the countries have to establish in order to be self-sufficient?
Colonies
What did Spain do when they had labor shortages in the New World?
Established slave trade
Who died the same day as Queen Mary (11-17-1558)?
Archbishop Pole
What was the significance of 11-17-58 for years afterward?
Measured as Protestant holiday