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82 Cards in this Set

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FORM A CLOSED CIRCUIT OF TUBES THAT CARRY BLOOD FROM THE HEART TO THE BODY CELLS AND BACK AGAIN
BLOOD VESSELS
OUTERMOST LAYER, CONSISTS OF CONNECTIVE TISSUES (ELASTIC AND COLLAGENOUS); APPEAR THIN IN ARTERIES, BUT THICK IN VEINS
TUNICA EXTERNA OR TUNICA ADVENTITIA
PART OF TUNICA MEDIA THAT IS ELASTIC WITH SMOOTH MUSCLE; FUNCTION IS DURABILITY
ARTERIES
PART OF TUNICA MEDIA THAT'S COLLAGENOUS WITH SMOOTH MUSCLE; MAIN FUNCTION IS SUPPORT
VEINS
MIDDLE LAYER OF BLOOD VESSELS, CONSISTIS MAINLY OF SMOOTH MUSCLES AND COLLAGENOUS FIBERS
TUNICA MEDIA
INNERMOST LAYER CONSISTING OF SIMPLE SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS
TUNICA INTERNA OR TUNICA INTIMA
WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF TUNICA MEDIA?
REGULATE DIAMETER OF BLOOD VESSELS
TUNICA INTERNA IS CONTINUOUS TO WHAT?
ENDOCARDIUM OF HEART
CENTRAL SPACE OF BLOOD VESSEL
LUMEN
ALSO KNOWN AS CONDUCTING ARTERIES
ELASTIC ARTERIES
CONTAINS MORE ELASTIC FIBERS THAN ANY OTHER VESSELS...THIS ENABLES IT TO WITHSTAND AND SMOOTH OUT LARGE PRESSURE FLUCTUATION
ELASTIC ARTERIES OR CONDUCTING ARTERIES
WHY ARE ELASTIC ARTERIES SOMEETIMES CALLED CONDUCTING ARTERIES?
BECAUSE THEY CONDUCT BLOOD TO THE MEDIUM SIZED ARTERIES
ARTERIES THAT DELIVER BLOOD TO THE SKELETAL MUSCLES AND INTERNAL ORGANS
MUSCULAR, DISTRIBUTING, OR MEDIUM-SIZED ARTERIES
THE CHANGES IN THEIR DIAMETER AFFECT THE AMOUNT OF FORCE REQUIRED TO PUSH BLOOD AROUND CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM
ARTERIOLES
WHAT ARE ARTERIOLES SOMETIMES CALLED AND WHY?
RESISTANCE VESSELS BECAUSE THEIR STRUCTUIRE RESISTS HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE
MICROSCOPIC VESSELS THAT SUPPLY ALMOST ALL BODY TISSUES; WALLS CONSIST OF ONLY A SINGLE LAYER OF CELLS
CAPILLARIES
WHERE NUTRIENTS, HORMONES, GASES, AND WASTES ARE EXCHANGED BETWEEN THE BLOOD AND CELLS
CAPILLARIES
SMOOTH MUSCLE-LIKE CELLS THAT STABILIZE CAPILLARY WALL
PERICYTES
3 TYPES OF CAPILLARIES
CONTINUOUS, FENESTRATED, AND SINUSOIDS OR SINUSOIDAL
THIS TYPE OF CAPILLARY OCCURS IN ALL TISSUES (SKIN AND MUSCLES), EXCEPT EPITHELIA AND CARTILAGE
CONTINUOUS
JUNCTIONS JUST LARGE ENOUGH TO ALLOW PASSAGE OF FLUIDS AND SMALL SOLUTES THROUGH CONTINUOUS CAPILLARIES
INTERCELLULAR CLEFTS
BRAIN CAPILLARIES ARE UNIQUE CONTINUOUS CAPILLARIES BECAUSE THEY ARE COMPLETE, AND CONSTITUTE THE STRUCTURAL BASIS OF WHAT?
BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER
CAPILLARIES WITH "WINDOWS", OR PORES, OR FENESTRATIONS COVERED WITH A DELICATE MEMBRANE OF DIAPHRAGM
FENESTRATED
WHERE ARE FENESTRATED CAPILLARES FOUND?
KIDNEYS, INTESTINE, ENDOCRINE GLANDS, CHOROID PLEXUS
CAPILLARIES FOUND IN AREAS WHERE ABSORPTION AND FILTRATE FORMATION OCCUR
FENESTRATED
SPECIALIZED FENESTRATED CAPILLARIES, HIGHLY MODIFIED AND "LEAKY"
SINUSOIDS OR SINUSOIDAL
FOUND IN AREAS WHERE LARGE MOLECULES NEED TO PASS
SINUSOIDS OR SINUSOIDAL
EXAMPLES OF WHERE SINUSOIDS MAY BE FOUND
LIVER, BONE MARROW, ADRENAL GLAND
CAPILLARIES DO NOT FUNCTION AS INDIVIDUAL UNITS, BUT RATHER AS WHAT?
INTERCONNECTED NETWORK
CAPILLARY BEDS OR CAPILLARY PLEXUS
INTERCONNECTED NETWORK
FLOW OF BLOOD FROM ARTERIOLE TO BENULE THROUGH THE CAPILLARY BEDS
MICROCIRCULATION
CONNECTS THE ARTERIOLE AND VENULE AT OPPOSITE ENDS OF THE BEDS
VASCULAR SHUNTS
2 TYPE OF VESSELS THAT CONSTITUTE CAPILLARY BED
VASCULAR SHUNT AND TRUE CAPILLARIES
WHERE ACTUAL EXCHANGE OF MATERIALS BETWEEN BLOOD AND CELLS OCCURS
TRUE CAPILLARIES
BAND OF SMOOTH MUSCLES THAT GUARD THE ENTRANCE OF EACH CAPILLARY
PRECAPILLARY SPHINCTER
MAJOR FUNCTION OF VENOUS SYSTEM
BLOOD RESERVOIR FOR CAPACITANCE VESSELS
WHICH HOLDS MORE BLOOD VOLUME, VEINS OR ARTERIES?
veins
characterized by large lumen and thin walls
VEINS
SMALLEST VEINS; THEY COLLECT BLOOD FROM CAPILLARY BEDS
VENULES
COMPARABLE IN SIZE TO MUSCULAR ARTERIES
MEDIUM-SIZED VEINS
THICKEST LAYER ON VEINS; CONTAINS ELASTIC AND COLLAGEN FIBERS
TUNICA EXTERNA
WHAT CONTROLS THE FLOW O BLOOD TO THE CAPILLARIES?
ARTERIOLES
WHAT STRUCTURE FUNCTIONS AS CAPACITATE VESSEL?
VEINS
WHAT FUNCTIONS AS A BLOOD RESERVOIR?
VEINS
WHERE CHANNELS UNITE
VASCULAR ANASTOMES
PROVIDE ALTERNATE PATHWAYS FOR BLOOD TO REACH A GIVEN BODY REGION
ARTERIAL ANASTOMOSES
THOROUGHFARE CHANNEL SHUNTS OF CAPILLARY BEDS
ARTERIOVENOUS ANASTOMOSES
VEINS THAT ARE MORE COMMON ON BACK OF HAND
VENOUS ANASTOMOSES
THE FORCE EXERTED BY THE BLOOD ON THE WALL OF A BLOOD VESSEL
BLOOD PRESSURE
HOW IS BLOOD PRESSURE RECORDED?
mmHG
3 AREAS CIRCULATORY PRESSURE IS OFTEN DIVIDED INTO
BLOOD PRESSURE, CAPILLARY HYDROSTATIC PRESURE, AND VENOUS PRESSURE
RANGES FROM 100 mmHG TO ABOUT 35 mmHG AT THE START OF CAPILLARY BEDS
BLOOD PRESSURE
BLOOD PRESSURE IS ALSO CALLED
ARTERIAL PRESSURE
RANGES FROM 35-18mmHG; MEASURES CAPILLARIES
CAPILLARY HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE
TYPICALLY QUITE LOW AND RELATIVELY STEADY/ ONLY ABOUT 18 mmHG
VENOUS PRESSURE
WHAT 2 FACTORS DOES BLOOD PRESSURE REFLECT
HW MUCH ELASTIC ARTERIES CAN BE STRETCHED & VOLUME OF BLOD FORCED INTO THEM AT ANY TIME
THE MORE ELASTICITY AN ARTERY HAS, THE ?
LOWER BLOOD PRESSURE
VISCOSITY IS DEFINED AS
VOLUME OF BLOOD
RHYTHMIC PRESSURE OSCILLATION THE ACCOMPANIES EACH HEARTBEAT
PULSE
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN SYSTOLIC AND DIASTOLIC PRESSURE
PULSE PRESSURE
WHEN THE VENTRICLES CONTRACT
SYSTOLIC PRESSURE
WHEN VENTRICLES RELAX
DIASTOLIC PRESSURE
PRESSURE THAT PROPELS BLOOD TO TISSUES IN CARDIAC CYCLE
MEAN ARTERIAL PRESSURE (MAP)
MAP=
DIASTOLIC PRESSURE + PULSE PRESSURE/3
BLOOD PRESSURE GREATER THAN 150/90
HYPERTENSION
WHAT FACTORS INFLUENCE ARTERIAL BLOOD PRESSURE
HEART ACTION, BLOOD VOLUME, AND PERIPHERAL RESISTANCE
CREATES BLOOD'S PRESSURE BY FORCING BLOOD INTO ARTERIES
HEART ACTION
EQUALS THE SUM OF BLOOD CELL AND PLASMA VOLUMES IN VASCULAR SYSTEM
BLOOD VOLUME
OPPOSITION TO THE FLOW OF BLOOD
PERIPHERAL RESISTANCE
A MEASURE OF AMOUNT OF FRICTION BLOD ENCOUNTERS AS IT PASSESTHROUGH THE VESSELS
RESISTANCE (PERIPHERAL)
3 IMPORTANT SOURCES OF RESITANCE
VISCOSITY, TOTAL BLOOD VESSEL LENGTH, BLOOD VESSEL DIAMETER
A BIGGER BODY...MEANS LONGER VESSELS...MEANS GREATER RESISTANCE....MEANS?
HIGHER BLOOD PRESSURE
MAJOR SOURCE OF VISCOCITY
RED BLOOD CELLS
TENDENCY FOR A FLUID TO RESIST FLOW
VISCOSITY
SMALLER DIAMETER OF VESSEL MEANS
GEATER FRICTION
PROCESSES THAT MOVE MATERIALS ACROSS A TYPICAL CAPILLARY WALL
CAPILLARY EXCHANGE
NET MOVEMENT OF IONS OR MOLECULES FROM AN AREA OF HIGHER CONCENTRATION TO AREA OF LOWER CONCENTRATION
DISFFUSION
ROUTES OF DIFFUSION IN CAPILLARY WALLS
between adjacent endothelial cells, channels, pores of fenestrated capillaries, through endothelial membrane, and pores of sinusoids
diffusion of water due to differing solute concentrations
osmosis
what is osmotic pressure indicative of
the force of osmotic water movement
FORCE THAT DRAWS WATER INTO A SOLUTION
OSMOTIC PRESSURE
TERM FOR OSMOTIC PRESSURE OF THE BLOOD IN WHICH ONLY SUSPENDED PROTEINS ARE UNABLE TO CROSS CAPILLARY WALLS
BLOOD COLLOID OSMOTIC PRESSURE OR ONCOTIC PRESSURE