Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

73 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
This three-part document, whose name is derived from the Greek word for "teaching," was written as a manual for preparing Gentile converts for the early Jewish-Christian community. It addresses rituals like Baptism and Eucharist, and the structure of the Church.
The Didache
It starts with the letter "D."
In 367 A.D., he wrote the 39th Festal Letter which lists the canonical books.
St. Athananisius
This saint's name begins with the letter "A."
He was a Latin theologian who was a convert from Manichaeism. He had a "psychological understanding" of the Trinity, beginning with the Divine Essence and proceeding to the three manifestations. He wrote the book "Confessions," which detailed the sinfulness of his past.
Augustine of Hippo
His name contains the letters of a month in summer.
He was a pseudonymous writer who used the name of Paul's Greek companion to lend authenticity to his work. He influenced Maximus the Confessor, Thomas Aquinas, and Richard of St. Victor, among many others. He said that there were two ways to God, the negative way and the positive way. He preferred the negative way, which denies human attributes to God and, instead, accepts that the entire concept of God is not one that can be grasped.
Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite (ca. 500)
He developed the Greek concept of the Incarnation. In his opinion, Adam's sin was not responsible for the Incarnation; it would have happened even if Adam had not sinned. He believed that, like Buddhists, Christians would only be truly whole and realize their full potential when they are reunited with God.
Maximus the Confessor (580-622)
The first part of his name: Mel Gibson starred in the 1979 science-fiction/action film "Mad _____."
He was an influential Muslim philosopher of the medieval era who embraced Aristotle. With regard to Creation, he held that whatever has a beginning – everything we experience – must have a cause; we experience possible beings. A prior being must be the cause of any possible being, but since an infinite series of causes is implausible, there must be a First Cause, a necessary being which exists in itself – God, who has no beginning, is always in action, and has always created. He held that God created a single effect called Intelligence, the "highest angel." He posited nine such "Intelligences," each which creates the one immediately below it. The last is called "Agent Intellect."
Avicenna (980-1037)
His name begins with the letter "A," and it rhymes with the word "henna."
He was an influential Muslim philosopher of the medieval era who embraced Aristotle. Known as "the Commentator," he was a Spanish scholar of philosophy, math, law, medicine, and theology. He upheld that Aristotle is the greatest philosopher, and he often used Aristotelian concepts in his writings. He did not believe in immortality; he believed that the soul was material and the form of a human person, which upon death no longer exists.
Averroes (1126-1198)
His name begins with the letter "A," and it rhymes with the word "pose."
He was a Benedictine monk of the 11th - 12th centuries who sought a rational "proof" for God by beginning with prayer and positing "God is that that which a greater thought cannot be thought."
Anselm (1033-1109)
His name begins with the letter "A."
Known as the "father of Scholasticism" (a method of asking questions), this influential Western theologian wrote "Summa Theologica" in which he presents "Five Proofs" for the existence of God.
Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274)
Don't be a "doubting ______!"
He was a Jewish philosopher, born in Cordova, Spain, who claimed that the Torah and philosophy do not conflict in his book "Guide for Doubting." The goal of life, in his opinion, was to achieve perfection, the highest level of which occurs in rational virtues.
Moses Maimonides (1135-1204)
His first name is that of the Jewish prophet who brought the Ten Commandments down from Mount Sinai.
He was a mystical theologian who compiled a system of instruction in the practice of contemplation, using elements of Biblical study, theological investigation and contemplation, and the writings of Pseudo-Dionysius.
Richard of St. Victor (d. 1173)
He shares his first name with "Little _______," an American singer, songwriter, and pianist who wrote the song "Tutti Fruitti."
This piece of apocalyptic literature was a message of hope during the Maccabean Revolt.
the Book of Daniel
It is an Old Testament book.
This New Testament book's author is writing to the seven churches who suffer as a result of Roman persecution. The words provided hope and strength to believers.
It starts with the letter "R."
Name a few elements of apocalyptic literature.
cosmic dualism (Heaven is good and Earth is hopeless), ethical dualism (each person is either a sinner or a saint), and predestination (history has a predetermined course over which humans have no control)
He was a French philosopher who sought to construct a means of understanding God through human reason. He uttered the famous phrase "I think, therefore I am."
Rene Descartes (1569-1650)
According to Monty Python, "______ was a drunken fart."
He was a French mathematician and philosopher who said that God was a matter of personal choice/heart. His most famous work was "Pensées."
Blaise Pascal (1623-1662)
His last name has been given to the SI unit of pressure and to a programming language.
He was an English philosopher, mathematician, and physicist who rejected the Trinity. However, he did believe in God, who, in his opinion, was like a mechanic. God is a source of activity in a passive universe.
Isaac Newton (1642-1727)
Fig _______, a soft, cake-like pastry filled with fig jam.
He was an Irish philosopher and bishop who advanced the theory of immaterialism ("to be is to be perceived").
George Berkeley (1685-1753)
His first name: John, Paul, ______, and Ringo.
He was a philosopher of Portuguese-Jewish origin. He contended that "Deus sive Natura" ("God or Nature") was a being of infinitely many attributes.
Baruch Spinoza (1632-1677)
His first name begins with a "B."
He was a Jewish mystic who embraced Kabala. He is associated with "devekuth," a practice of concentration that allows one to experience God wherever.
Baal Shem Tov or "Besht"
His nickname starts with "B."
He was a French priest who wrote the groundbreaking book "Critical History of the Old Testament." The book suggested that Moses did not write the Pentateuch.
Richard Simon (1638-1712)
Surprisingly, his name does not sound French.
He was a German scholar who was considered the father of modern theology. He believed that the Church was a dynamic, living organism.
F.D.E. Schleiermacher (1763-1834)
His last name is long.
He was a theologian who wrote the book "Symbolik." He believed that dogmas were not static.
John Adam Mohler (1796-1838)
The first half of his last name: "Whack-a-_____," a popular arcade game.
He was a German philosopher who came up with the thesis/antithesis/synthesis format. He believed that all religions in the world were important. However, Christianity was the ultimate truth. He embraced both the past and the future of the Church. He was a supporter of the Trinity and the Incarnation.
G.W.F. Hegel (1770-1831)
According to Monty Python, "David Hume could out-consume
Wilhelm Friedrich ______."
He called Vatican II because he believed that the Church needed to open its windows and let in a "breath of fresh air." He called for peace, interaction, and cooperation between faiths, and an embracing of both the new and the traditional.
Pope John XXIII
_______, Paul, George, and Ringo.
He endorsed modern Biblical scholarship in Roman Catholicism. The WWII Pope created the encyclical "Divino Afflante Spiritu" which allowed for the new historical methods to be used in the Church. Thus, he helped bring about the whirlwinds of reforms during Vatican II.
Pope Pius XII
This council was called in 325 A.D. by Emperor Constantine. Although Constantine viewed the council as a success, the theological arguments, especially in regard to Arius' beliefs, went on for more than half a century afterwards.
Council of Nicea
He thought the Church was incompatible with modern thought. He wrote "The Syllabus of Errors," anti-Protestant and anti-other-religions document. He called Vatican I, which created the doctrine of Papal Infallibility, to reassert Catholic and Papal authority.
Pope Pius IX (1846-1878)
This work presents the loving and forgiving nature of YHWH. The writer, who must speak from personal experience, recounts his intense feelings of sorrow and shame before he confessed his sins to YHWH. Following the confession, the writer feels the burden of guilt and the stain of sin lifted from him. YHWH's forgiveness fills him with unending joy, and he delightedly tells others of his positive experience through poetry.
Psalm 32
42-10 = ?
He called Vatican II because he believed that the Church needed to open its windows and let in a "breath of fresh air." He called for peace, interaction, and cooperation between faiths, and an embracing of both the new and the traditional.
Pope John XXIII
He was a German-American theologian and Christian philosopher who believed that God is a source of meaning within meaningless. God is certitude. Humans should not despair because of the ultimate hope.
Paul Tillich (1868-1965)
His first name: John, ______, George, and Ringo.

The beginning of his last name: the song "______ There Was You" from "The Music Man"
He was a Jesuit paleontologist who believed that Christianity was always evolving towards a higher knowledge, with the risen Jesus at its center (manifested through charity). He furthered the theory of the "divine milieu" or God in everything.
Pierre Teilhard de Chardin (1881-1955)
In French, his name means "stone." Associate this word with his profession, which deals with digging for bones.
He is an African-American theologian who was important to the "liberation theology" movement.
James Cone (1938 - )
His last name: "_____-heads," a horrible 1993 starring Dan Aykroyd, Jane Curtan, and Michelle Burke as an alien family who travels to Earth.
He was an Austrian-Jewish philosopher who focused on the individual's personal encounters with God in an "I-Thou" relationship. He did not emphasize the Torah.
Martin Buber (1878-1965)
His last name rhymes with "tuber."
He was an Iranian sociologist, well-known and respected for his works in the field of sociology and religion.
Ali Shariati (1933-1977)
His first name: the American boxer Muhammad ____.
He was a Jewish theologian who focused on the Rabbinic tradition, the Talmud, and the Torah for revelation.
Abraham Joshua Heschel (1907-1972)
His first name is that of the founder of the Jewish, Christian, and Islamic faiths.
He was a German theologian, and a Jesuit, who influenced many of the new doctrines of Vatican II. He had a very modern understanding of the Catholic Church. He believed that God was always priority, and that the central doctrine of Christianity is grace.
Karl Rahner (1904-1984)
He shares the same first name as Mr. Marx (not "Groucho").
This form of Jewish mysticism helped Jews make sense of their lives during persecution. God is mediated through ten emanations.
The American entertainer Madonna studies this religion.
The goal of this form of Jewish mysticism is to ascend to the heavens and view the Divine Chariot, which symbolizes God's presence.
Chariot or "Merkavah" Mysticism
"_______s of Fire," a 1981 British film about British athletes preparing for the 1924 Olympics.
It is an example of throne mysticism. Muhammad is taken from Arabia to the Temple Mount in Jerusalem by Gabriel on a "celestial horse." There, he meets "Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and a crowd of other prophets." Then, Gabriel and Muhammad begin their ascent up a ladder through the seven heavens. Ultimately, they reach the divine sphere, where he sees not God but "symbols that pointed to the divine reality."
Muhammad's "Night Journey"
It is synonymous with an "Evening Trek."
This is the first sura of the Qur'an. It describes God in many ways, including "most gracious," "most merciful," and "cherisher and sustainer of the world."
The Fatiah
It starts with the letter "F."
This is an Islamic creed that declares oneness with al-Lah. Its daily recitation is one of the Five Pillars of Islam.
The words begins with "s."
These are the five duties of every Muslim (shahadah, the profession of faith; salah, ritual prayer; zakat, the alms tax; sawm, fasting during Ramadan; and Hajj, the pilgrimage to Mecca).
Five Pillars of Islam
It is a chapter in the Qur'an.
It starts with the letter "s."
This is the Holy Book of Islam.
The Qur'an
They are the normative majority in Islam. They base their beliefs on Muhammad and the first four Caliphs.
They consider themselves the "True Islam," as they are direct descendants of Ali ibn Abi Talib. They believe that revelation is ongoing via the imams, that some of Ali's descendants "did not die" and will return, that a Messiah or Mahdi ("guided one") will appear on earth and bring forth justice, and that the Qur'an should be interpreted allegorically. They emphasize martyrdom because, in their eyes, it leads to holiness.
He was a Muslim theologian and philosopher who influenced both Christian and Muslim thinkers.
Al-Ghazali (1058-1111)
He was an Islamic scholar from Spain, a student of Al-Ghazali.
Ibn al-Arabi (1165-1240)
This is defined as "the comic law of consequences for moral actions which leads to reincarnation in a certain caste."
It rhymes with "dharma."
These are the oldest scriptural texts of Hinduism, and possibly of the world. This collection is comprised of four books: Rig Veda (sacred knowledge), Yajur Veda (knowledge of Rites), Sama-Veda (knowledge of chants), and Atharva-Veda (knowledge of the sage Atharva).
The Vedas
The second half of "Las Vegas" contains 4 out of the 5 letters of this text.
These are philosophical materials that promoted meditation in Hinduism.
The Upanishads
It begins with the letter "U."
This is the cycle of rebirth in Hinduism.
It starts with the letter "r."
It is an ethical system (ca. 300 B.C.), a caste, in Hinduism.
The Law of Manu
This sexless, unknowable, infinite Hindu god is "the ultimate reality."
It rhymes with "ramen."
This is defined as breaking free from the endless cycle of karma.
This priest and theologian held the Logos/Son (Jesus) was not divine by nature, the Father was greater than the Son, and the Word was "first of God creatures" and promoted to divine status.
His name begins with the letter "A."
This early church figure rejected the Old Testament and its "God of Law," in favor of an edited form of the New Testament ("God of Love"). His teachings state that Jesus was not really human; He only appeared to be so. He rejected the Old Testament and created his own Bible for his followers.
His name begins with the letter "M."
This 1943 document, created by Pope Pius XII, allowed the modern historical method to be used officially by historians studying the Bible and the Church. It was a precursor to the reforms of Vatican II.
"Divino Afflante Spiritu" (1943)
1st word: D
2nd word: A
3rd word: S
This 1964 document, created by the Pontifical Biblical Commission, described the three stages of Gospel Formation as 1) the words and actions of Jesus, 2) oral tradition, and 3) writings of the evangelists.
"On the Historical Truth of the Gospels" (1964)
Known as "The Constitution on Divine Revelation," this important document, created by Vatican II in 1965, demonstrated a dynamic understanding of revelation and use of the historical method. It stressed the living voice of the Gospel.
"Dei Verbum" (1965)
It starts with "D."
This document, created in 1965 by Vatican II, is also called the "Declaration for the Church to Non-Christian Religions." It was a dramatic reversal of Pope Pius IX's "Syllabus of Errors" because it stated that truth and holiness were found in other religions, and that the common humanity and similiar concerns found in all religions should be stressed.
"Nostra Aetate" (1965)
It starts with "N."
This was the 19th Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. It was convened three times between 1545 and 1563 as a response to the theological and ecclesiological challenges of the Protestant Reformation.
Council of Trent
Pope Pius IX called this council in 1869 to combat the modernist crisis. This council also reasserted Catholic and Papal power. Most importantly, the doctrine of papal infallibility and Pius' "Syllabus of Errors" was introduced.
Vatican Council I
This council was called by Pope John XXIII in 1962. It was a very drastic reversal of Vatican I. Documents like "Nostra Aetate" and "Dei Verbum" called for religious tolerance and acceptance and an embracing of modern historical methods.
Vatican Council II
It's the sequel to Vatican I.
This movement stressed emotion over reason. It followed the Enlightenment. It stated that God was not a bunch of propositions and facts but that human emotion was important.
William Wordsworth was a member of this movement.
This was a movement where the Bible was studied for its original context, authors, sources, and forms. It caused Vatican I, as it was seen as a threat to the Church.
This was a period of time that stressed reason and logic over emotion. It challenged religion and questioned the tradional God in the increasingly technologically driven world.
The Enlightenment
This is a Protestant missionary movement which taught that doctrine was not an end to itself, as each person must form their own personal relationships with God. It focused on a life of holiness and personal spirituality.
It starts with "P."
These are parts of "Divino Afflante Spiritu," which led to Vatican II.
The Biblical, Historical, and Liturgical Renewal (leading up to Vatican II)
This work praises God ("Hallelu-yah") and presents an angel as a messenger of God.
Psalm 148
This is the first written recording of the oral law of the Jewish people. It is part of the Talmud.
The Mishna
It rhymes with "Krishna."
This is a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs and history. It has two components: the Mishna and the Gemara.
The Talmud
It starts with the letter "T."