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47 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
nitrate with highest PO bioavailability?
isosorbide mononitrate. low first pass metab
tx strep pyo
organs affected by RF
joints (migratory polyarthritis), heart (all layers), brain (chorea)
antibiotic tx of strep A pharyngitis prevents
serous viral pericarditis =>
Beck's triad
tamponade. 1) hypotension 2) distended neck veins 3) distant heart sounds
mc cause fatigue + new onset murmur in young pt
BE. possible: IC => GN
when does acute rejection occur
1-4 wks. cell mediated
hyperacute rejection caused by
preformed antibodies
chronic rejection. which cells and when
months/years. T + B + Ab
mc cause of HCM
mutation in cardiac sarcomere genes. mc: beta myosin heavy chain
dilated cardiomyoapthy cased by what vit def
wet beri beri thiamine b1
HCM histo
disorganized hypertrophic myocytes w/ fibrosis
nl diamater LV
sudden cardiac death ddx
young: HCM. WPW
t test compares
two means
ANOVA comapres
more than two means
squatting does what
inc preload, inc afterload
why would squatting cause MVP to disappear
inc preload => inc EDV => overlapping leaflets spread, close properly
mitral valve prolapse with click is due to
myxamatous degeneration
two causes of ANP, BNP secretion
1) volume overload. 2) remodeling/hypertrophy
ANP works at 3 locations… and how!
1) kidney 2) adrenal cortex 3) blood vessels. activate GC => gMP
tx PSVT with carotid massage. how does it work
inc baroR signaling => inc parasympathetic, dec symph => prolong AV node refractory period
NO mech
GC => cGMP => dec intracellular ca => dec myosin light chain kinase activity => myosin deP
effect of beta blocker on EKG
prolong PR (slow conduction through AV)
Dry beri beri
th1amine. symmetrical peripheral neuropathy.
Wet beri beri
th1amine. symmetrical peripheral neuropathy (dry) + cardiomyopathy (high output HF)
Vit A def
night blindness, xeropthalmia, infections (esp measels)
B2 def
riboflavin. cheilosis, stomatitis, glossitis, dermaitis, corneal vascularization
b6 def
pyridoxine. cheilosis, glossitis, dermatitis, peripheral neuropathy. cofactor for tryptophan => niacin, so can also get tryptophan def
niacin def
pellagra (dementia, dermatitis, diarrhea)
most of heart's anterior surface
turner syndrome genetic cause
45 XO
turner syndrome primary findings
streak ovaries, common cause of 1° amenorrhea.
turner syndrome: extra gonadal findings
1) appearance: short, shield chest, webbed neck. 2) lymphedema. 3) CV malformations: *coarctation*, bicuspid, aortic dissection
vaginal adenosis
phosphodiesterase mech in vasodilation/inc contractility
mitochondrial vacuolization
irreversible ischemia
dispersion of ribosomes, autophagy by lysosomes, swelling of mt, clumping of nuclear chromatin = signs of …
reversible change!
cell death mech in hepatitis
mostly apoptosis
PiZZ (homozygous) A1AT dz. what's the problem with the protein
misfolded. stuck in ER, can't be secreted.
which cells have the highest telomerase activity
germ cells. NL somatic cells have no telomerase activity.
GERD. histological change?
stratified squamous epithelium => columnar cell metaplasia (intestinal type)
onset of menopause. endometrium undergoes…
metastatic calcification
prolonged hypercalcemia => calcium deposition in normal tissue
dystrophic calcification
calcium deposition in injured tissues, with normal serum calcium levels
lipofuscin results from…