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78 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Geology
The Earth science that is concerned with the composition and structure of Earth’s interior.
Crust
Earth’s surface layer, consisting of oceanic and continental crust.
Mantle
A layer of thick, hot rock between the crust and core.
Core
Earth’s innermost layer, which is mostly iron and includes the inner core and outer core.
Density
The amount of mass an object or material has compared to its volume.
Lithosphere
Earth’s outermost structural layer, consisting of cool, rigid rock.
Asthenospere
A layer of weak, warm rock that flows slowly over geologic time.
Lower Mantle
The lowest portion of mantle, a zone of rigid rock.
Outer Core
A shell of hot, liquid metal beneath the mantle and above the inner core.
Inner Core
A solid sphere of hot metal, mostly iron, at the center of Earth.
Magma
Molten rock inside Earth.
Continental Drift
The hypothesis that the world’s continents move slowly over Earth’s surface.
Convergent Boundary
Places where tectonic plates are coming together.
Divergent Boundary
Places where plates are pulling apart.
Tension (Stress)
A stretching force on rock.
Compression (Stress)
A squeezing force on rock.
Folds
A bend in layers of rock.
Faults
A crack in Earth’s crust along which different sections of rock have shifted.
Folded Mountains
A mountain produced by the folding of rock.
Fault Block Mountains
A mountain produced by normal faulting and the uplifting of blocks of rock.
Volcanoes
A mountain that is the accumulation of lava or other erupted materials. A mountain that forms when lava or pyroclastic materials pile up around a volcano vent.
Upward Mountains
A dome-shaped mountain produced by a broad arching of Earth’s crust.
Plains
Broad, flat areas of land that don’t rise much above sea level.
Plateaus
Flat areas of land more than 600 m above sea level.
Subduction
The sinking of oceanic lithosphere into the asthenosphere.
Plate Tectonics
The theory that states that Earth’s lithosphere is divided into large plates that slowly move around the globe.
Sea Floor Spreading
The process by which new lithosphere is created at midocean ridges as older lithosphere moves away.
Transform Boundary
Places where tectonic plates slide along beside one another as they move.
Rock
A solid mixture of one or more kinds of minerals.
Igneous Rock
Rock that forms from magma that cools.
Intrusive Igneous Rock
Igneous rock that forms from magma that cools underground.
Extrusive Igneous Rock
An igneous rock that forms at Earth’s surface.
Sedimentary Rock
Rock that forms over time as rock is pressed together.
Strata
Parallel layers of sedimentary rock.
Metamorphic Rocks
Rock that has formed from existing rock that has changed because of temperature, pressure, or reactive chemicals.
Foliated Rocks
Rocks that contain crystals that are arranged in parallel bands.
Weathering
The disintegration or decomposition of rock at or near Earth’s surface.
Erosion
The removal and transport of pieces of preexisting rock.
Deposition
The process of laying down eroded material in new locations.
Soil
A mixture of fine, weathered rock particles and air, water, and organic matter such as dead animals and plants and animal excrement.
Rock Cycle
A series of processes by which rock is formed, breaks down, and transforms into different kinds of rock.
Water Cycle
The continuous movement of water in all its phases among Earth’s reservoirs.
Evaporation
A transformation from a liquid to a gas.
Precipitation
Water in the liquid or solid state that returns to Earth’s surface from the atmosphere.
Runoff
Precipitation that is not absorbed by the ground or evaporated and that runs over Earth’s surface.
Evapotranspirtation
the process of transferring moisture from the earth to the atmosphere by evaporation of water and transpiration from plants.
Watershed
The land area that drains into a particular stream.
Ground Water
The water that resides in a saturated zone.
Aquifer
An underground layer of permeable rock, sediment (usually sand or gravel), or soil that yields water.
Condensation
A transformation from a gas to a liquid.
Sublimation
The process of changing from a solid to a gas without passing through an intermediate liquid phase.
Water Table
The upper boundary of the saturation zone.
Permeability
The ease with which fluid can flow through rock.
Porosity
The proportion of rock that consists of pore spaces.
Glacier
A large mass of dense ice formed from snow.
Reservoir
A location where water or other material that transfers from place to place in a cyclical manner is stored.
Residence Time
The average length of time that any given atom will stay in a particular reservoir, such as the ocean or atmosphere.
Weather
The state of the atmosphere at a particular time and place.
Climate
The general pattern of weather that occurs over a period of time.
Atmosperic Pressure
The weight of all the air molecules in the atmosphere pressing down on Earth’s surface.
Atmosphere
The thin envelope of gases surrounding the solid planet.
Solar Radiation
Electromagnetic energy given off by the Sun.
Terrestrial Radiation
Infrared radiation emitted by Earth’s surface.
Greenhouse Effect
The process by which certain gases warm the atmosphere by trapping infrared radiation.
Solar Intensity
Solar radiation per area.
Latitude
A measure of relative position north or south on the Earth's surface, measured in degrees from the equator, which has a latitude of 0°, with the poles having a latitude of 90° north and south.
Longitude
A measure of relative position east or west on the Earth's surface, given in degrees from a certain meridian, usually the prime meridian at Greenwich, England, which has a longitude of 0°.
Wind
Air flowing horizontally from an area of high pressure to one of lower pressure.
Wind Chill
the apparent temperature felt on the exposed human body owing to the combination of temperature and wind speed.
Coriolis Effect
The tendency of moving bodies not attached to Earth (such as air molecules) to move to their right in the Northern Hemisphere and to their left in the Southern Hemisphere.
Surface Currents
A wind-driven, shallow ocean current.
Humidity
The mass of water in a given volume of air.
Relative Humidity
The ratio of the water vapor actually in the air compared with the maximum water vapor air can hold at that temperature.
Dew Point
The temperature at which the air becomes saturated.
Air Masses
A large pool of air that has similar temperature and moisture characteristics throughout.
Fronts
(or weather front) A boundary along which air masses meet.
Cyclone
(or a low-pressure system or simply alow) A weather system organized around an area of low pressure.
Anticyclone
(or a high-pressure system or simply ahigh) A weather system organized around an area of high pressure.