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8 Steps for Food to go from Mouth to Stomach:
~Press h for hint to get THE 8 STEPS answer.~
*food+saliva=bolus > tongue+cheeks push bolus to back of mouth > soft palate+uvula seal off nasal cavity > tongue tip pushes against top of mouth, while tongue base pushes bolus down & sides of pharynx contract > hyoid bone+larynx elevate > bolus pushes down on epiglottis, blocking trachea > contraction of pharynx pushes bolus into esophagus, past larynx > contraction waves push bolus thru esophagus to stomach, & neck+throat muscles relax, and return to normal breathing position*
abdomen
[L] below the chest to the hips
not a specific medical anatomic term, but only a method of designating the external area specific to organs of digestion.
abdominal hernia
the protrusion of some internal body structure thru the abdominal wall;
achalasia
[L] esophagus
impairment of normal esophageal peristalsis; impairs the relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter; symptoms are dysphagia, regurgitation, nocturnal cough, and chest pain.
adventitia layer of lumen
4th layer of the lumen; [L] outer layer of the a. canal wall
covered by the serosa or visceral peritoneum.
adynamic ileus
a type of ileus;
a suspension of peristalsis because of paralysis or atony (lack of normal muscle tone or strength). This can be the result of drugs, toxemia, trauma, or surgery
afebrile
not having a fever.
alimentary canal (LAYERS)
LAYERS from Innermost to Outermost: ]lumen (mucosa, submucosa, muscularis, adventitia), visceral peritoneum]
all of the a. canal consists of these layers, except the mouth and pharynx which are used not only for digestion, but for respiration.
alimentary canal or gastrointestinal tract
[L] the tube that extends from lips to anus; ~ 9m or 30 ft. long
coiled, varies in diameter; although it is made up of individual parts, it never branches and is a continuous tube.
amebiasis
the state of being infected by amebae
amebic dysentery
[T[ the most common type of dysentery; [L] anywhere in the intestine;
an ulceration of the bowel (intestine) caused by amebiasis.
anal canal
the 4th'A' major region of the large intestine; [L] comes after the sigmoid colon.
the anal canal forms a muscular opening in the muscles of the pelvic floor which is called the anus
anorexia
[T] a symptom of GI illness
a loss or total lack of appetite
anorexia nervosa
[T] psychiatric condition (usually based on an intense fear of becoming obese)
anus
the 4th'B' major region of the large intestine; [L] comes after the sigmoid colon and the anal canal.
muscles of the pelvic floor; surrounded by involuntary and voluntary muscular sphincters.
appendicitis
[T] inflammation of the vermiform appendix;
appendix (general term) or vermiform appendix (used by pathologists)
[L] diverticulum of the cecum;
a small, finger-like projection which is attached to the medial portion of the cecum;
ascending colon
[L] arises from the cecum and goes in an upward direction (ascending)
atresia
the absence or closure of a normal body orifice or tubular organ.
bacterium
more common reason (than parasites) for GI maladies and disease.
a pathogenic microorganism whose cell is enclosed in a cell wall.
Barrett esophagus
[L] esophagus; [T] type of peptic ulcer;
[F] a chronic peptic ulcer;
belching
[T] a symptom of GI illness
bezoar
tightly packed, partially digested agglomerations of hair or vegetable matter. Seeds, bubble gum, medication, and other materials can mimic true bezoars.
bloating
[T] a symptom of GI illness
body (of the stomach)
[L] between the lesser & greater curvatures;
the widest portion of the stomach;
bolus
[L] formed in the mouth
a rounded mass of food
borborygmus or borborygmos
[T] a symptom of GI illness
the audible rumbling sounds (borborygmi) of gas moving thru the intestinal tract.
botulism
[T] food poisoning; [S] vomiting, abdominal pain, difficulty seeing, dryness of the mouth and pharynx, dyspepsia, cough, and often results in death
caused by the production of the bacteria Clostridium botulinum in improperly canned foods;
buccal cavity or oral cavity or mouth
[L] includes mouth, lips, teeth, tongue
taste, chew
Campylobacter
intestinal bacteria
cardiac orifice
[L] the junction between the esophagus & stomach
also referred to as the "GE junction" - gastroesophageal junction; the muscles in this area are in a constant state of contraction in order to prevent the stomach contents from flowing backward.
cecum
the 1st major region of the large intestine; [L] opens into the colon;
contains the appendix;
cheiloschisis or cleft lip or harelip
[T] a congenital abnormality
chills or rigor
[T] a symptom of GI illness
a shivering or shaking.
cholecystitis
[L] gallbladder; [T] chronic infection; [T] acute infection - generally indicates severe infection and often the gallbladder needs to be removed (cholecystectomy);
inflammation of the gallblader
cholera
[T] a type of enteritis;
spread by food & water contaminated with feces; very common in 3rd world countries.
cirrhosis
[L] liver; [T] term refers to a group of liver diseases;
the normal hepatic structure of the liver is destroyed over time by nodules; in U.S. caused by chronic alcohol abuse; also can be caused by untreated and highly communicable strains of hepatitis.
Clostridium botulinum
intestinal bacteria
Clostridium difficile
intestinal bacteria
Clostridium perfringens
intestinal bacteria
Clostridium tetani
intestinal bacteria
coelomic cavity
[L] "the outside tube" of the alimentary canal or GI tract
lined by the parietal peritoneum;
colitis
[L] colon
inflammation of the colon
colon
the 2nd major region of the large intestine;
the colon consists of these 5 areas: ascending colon, transverse colon, splenic flexure, descending colon, and sigmoid colon
common bile duct
[L] very near the gallbladder;
conveys bile into the duodenum
congenital megacolon
synonym for Hirschsprung disease; megacolon is an abnormal enlargement or extreme dilation of the colon;
constipation
[T] a symptom of GI illness; disease
infrequent or difficult evacuation of feces;
Crohn disease
a [T] of inflammatory bowel disease. [L] GI tract, but mostly found in the ileocecal area.
cause is unknown; frequently leads to obstruction, fistula, and abscess formation.
cystic duct
[L] gallbladder
it drains the gallbladder; it also unites with the hepatic duct to form the common bile duct;
deglutition
[L] throat area
the process of swallowing
dehydration
condition which results from an excessive loss of body water.
occurs when there is vomiting, diarrhea, diabetes, mental disorder, coma, or when a patient is taking diuretic medications (those which promote the excretion of urine). It can be life threatening.
dental caries
tooth decay
descending colon
[L] the portion of the large intestine which goes downward (descending)
Digestive system is made up of: location of microscopic glandular structures
[L] found in the walls of the GI tract
Digestive system is made up of: names of individual organs
large intestine, small intestine, stomach, etc.
Digestive system is made up of: names of larger secretory organs
liver, pancreas, etc.
secretions are transmitted thru ducts within the GI tract; the secretions break fats into fatty acids, proteins into amino acids; carbohydrates into simple sugars
dilatation
the condition, as of an orifice or tubular structure, of being dilated or stretched beyond normal dimensions.
diverticulitis
inflammation of a diverticulum
diverticulosis
the presence of diverticula with the absence of diverticulitis, especially in the colon.
diverticulum
an abnormal bulge, pocket or pouch formed from a hollow or tubular structure.
dorsal mesentery
[L] dorsal side of parietal peritoneum, part of the a. canal or GI tract.
long, thin sheets of tissue which support the GI tract.
duodenum
the 1st main region of the small intestine
it receives secretions from the liver and the pancreas;
dysentery
[T] any of a variety of disorders; [L] intestines, especially the colon; [S] abdominal pain, tenesmus, frequent stools containing blood and mucus.
inflammation of the intestines, especially the colon;
dyspepsia
[L] epigastric region (stomach)
impairment to the power or function of digestion; discomfort in the stomach following a meal or what many people call "indigestion"
dysphagia
[T] a symptom of GI illness; [L] occurs in the esophagus
a subject feeling of difficulty swallowing; it occurs when there is impaired progression of the food bolus from the pharynx to the stomach.
enteritis
[L] small intestine, primarily;
inflammation; often, this is combined as enterocolitis.
Enterobacter
intestinal bacteria
enterocolitis
[L] intestine and colon;
inflammation of both at the same time;
epiglottis
[L] throat; hangs over the entrance to the larynx; the part of the a. canal which connects the pharynx to the stomach.
a lid-like structure composed of cartilage; prevents food from entering the larynx (voice box) or trachea upon swallowing; a muscular tube about 25 cm long; involuntary muscle.
Escherichia coli
intestinal bacteria
esophagitis
[L] esophagus
inflammation
febrile
[T] a symptom of GI illness; having a fever.
fecalith
an intestinal concretion (the process of becoming harder or more solid) formed around a center of fecal matter.
fever or pyrexia
[T] a symptom of GI illness
an elevation in temp above normal;
fistula
[T] there are several types;
an abnormal passage or communication between 2 organs; or, from an internal organ to the surface of the body; can occur because of trauma, infection, inflammation, degeneration, necrosis, etc.
flatulence
[T] a symptom of GI illness
fundus
[L] extends slightly above the cardiac orifice;
dome-shaped portion of the stomach;
gallbladder
[T] a sac-like organ attached to the [L] undersurface of the liver
stores and concentrates bile; contains the cystic duct; secretes directly into the a. canal via ducts; therefore, important to digestion.
gas
[T] a symptom of GI illness
expressed by bloating, belching, and flatulence.
gastritis
[L] lining of the stomach
inflammation; a problem frequently associated with alcohol abuse; See gastroenteritis;
gastroenteritis
[L] lining of the stomach & intestine; [S] anorexia, nausea, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and weakness
acute inflammation; often a result of bacteria.
gastroenterology
the study of the alimentary canal or gastrointestinal tract.
gastroesophageal reflux disease (G.E.R.D.)
[L] stomach and esophagus; [S] heartburn, and can lead to other severe disorders;
reflux of stomach contents into the esophagus; usually caused by an incompetent lower esophageal sphincter;
Giardia
[L] microvilli of the intestinal walls; [T] an intestinal protozoa that does affect Westerners;
[F] this protozoa (single-celled animal) has a large, sucking disc which adheres to microvilli; [S] ;
giardiasis
[L] microvilli of the intestinal walls; [T] the infection that comes from the Giardia parasite;
greater omentum
[L] extends from the greater curvature of the stomach to the transverse colon.
gut
[L] below the chest to the hips (in a developing embryo)
not a specific medical anatomic term, but only a method of designating the external area specific to organs of digestion.
halitosis
offensive breath
can be REAL and the result of ingested substances; gingival disease, food fermentation in mouth; association with systemic diseases i.e. diabetic acidosis; or can be IMAGINED and the result of anxiety disorders, obsessive disorders, paranoia, or hypochondria;
heartburn
[T] a symptom of GI illness; [L] from the chest and arms, rising upward to the neck.
a retrosternal sensation of burning felt in waves and arising upward toward the neck.
Helicobacter pylori
intestinal bacteria
hematemesis
[T] a symptom of GI illness
vomiting of blood.
hematochezia
[T] a symptom of GI illness
the passage of bloody stools.
hepatic duct
[L] very near the gallbladder;
joins with the cystic duct after the cystic duct drains the gallbladder; part of the common bile duct;
hepatic flexure
[L] the colon bends sharply at approximately the liver
hepatitis
[L] liver; [T] A, B or C; [S] malaise, anorexia, hepatomegaly, jaundice, and abdominal pain.
A (spread thru contaminated food or water; slow onset, recovery expected), B (spread by blood or sexual contact or thru contaminated needles or instruments; there is a vaccine; can be fatal) or C (blood transfusions or needles from drug use; acute illness may progress to chronic hepatitis)
hernia
[T] several types; i.e. abdominal hernia; hiatal hernia; sliding hiatal hernia; paraesophageal hiatus hernia; inguinal hernia; umbilical hernia;
the protrusion of a loop or knuckle of an organ or tissue thru an abnormal opening.
hiatal hernia
the protrusion of the stomach above the diaphragm; [T] sliding hiatal hernia, and paraesophageal hiatus hernia.
Hirschsprung disease
[L] colon;
synonym for congenital megacolon, or a dilatation and hypertrophy of the colon due to the sustained contraction of the muscles of the rectosigmoid
hypertrophy
universal
a general increase in size of an organ's cells, not due to tumor formation; this does not mean that the number of cells increases, just the size of the cells. Ex: Muscles can hypertrophy when people take steroids.
ileocecal valve
[L] the area where the small intestine makes the transition to the large intestine.
ileum
the 3rd main region of the small intestine
ileus
[L] intestine; a common [T] is adynamic ileus
a temporary cessation of intestinal peristalsis, which often leads to obstruction.
inflammatory bowel disease
2 common types: Crohn disease, ulcerative colitis;
can be used to describe a variety of bowel disorders which are inflammatory in nature, whose etiology cannot be directly determined.
inguinal hernia
[L] inguinal canal; [T] direct and indirect inguinal hernias;
intussusception
occurs when a segment of bowel advances and protrudes into the segment distal to it.
irritable bowel syndrome
intermittent or constant abdominal distress & bowel dysfunction, which no proven cause;
[S] cramping, dizziness, sweating, complete evacuation of the bowel all at once;
jaundice
[L] usually indicates a problem with the liver; [T] a syndrome; many types of j.
[S] characterized by the bile pigment in the skin, mucous membranes, and sclerae with a resulting yellow appearance;
jejunum
the 2nd main region of the small intestine
labium
lip
large intestine
[L] the distal-most portion of the alimentary canal
"large" because - 6 cm in diameter; widest portion of the canal; most water is absorbed and feces are formed; divided into Four Major Regions; no villi in the large intestine; contains teniae coli; there are bulges called sacculations or haustra;
large intestine: name the 4 Major Regions
cecum, colon, rectum, anal canal or anus
lesser omentum
[L] extends from the lesser curvature of the stomach to the underside of the liver.
leukoplakia
[L] mucous membranes; [T] oral l. is the most common;
[S] a white patch that will not rub off & considered to be premalignant (precancerous) lesion, common in smokers.
lingual
[L] pertaining to the tongue
lingual frenulum
[L] connects the tongue to the floor of the mouth
frenulum is a general term for a membrane which curbs or limits the movement of an organ or part.
liver
[T] largest gland in the body;
made up of many liver lobules which produce bile; secretes directly into the a. canal via ducts; therefore, important to digestion.
lumen
[L] innermost part of the a. canal
4 layers which surround the lumen; See alimentary canal (LAYERS)
malabsorption
[L] intestine;
[F] m. is a signal that necessary nutrients are not being absorbed properly; [S] combination of weight loss, diarrhea, and anemia indicate m.
melena (n) or melenic (adj)
[T] a symptom of GI illness
refers to the passage of dark and pitchy stools stained with blood pigment and black vomit.
microvilli
a minute projection of cell membrane that greatly increases the surface area.
mucosa layer of lumen
innermost / 1st layer of the lumen
3 functions: distention, absorption, secretion.
mumps
[L] salivary gland; [T] an acute, highly contagious viral disease;
[S] causes painful enlargement of the salivary glands; primarily in children under 15;
muscularis layer of lumen
3rd layer of the lumen
function: peristalsis occurs here; See peristalsis. The muscularis contains valves or sphincters which are especially thickened circular muscles which occur in strategic places w/in the canal to regulate food passage.
nasopharynx
[L] throat; a posterior continuation of the nasal cavity.
not part of the digestive system.
nausea
[T] a symptom of GI illness; [L] epigastric and abdominal area.
an unpleasant sensation which often results in vomiting.
obstipation
[T] a symptom of GI illness
constipation that continues for a prolonged period of time.
obstruction
[L] Re: gastroenterology - in the intestine;
[F] an indicator of adhesions, hernias, tumors, foreign bodies, inflammatory bowel disease, fecal impaction, and volvulus; [S] usually refers to a complete arrest or serious impairment to the passage of intestinal contents;
odynophagia
[T] a symptom of GI illness; [L] throat pain during swallowing.
omentum
[L] part of the alimentary canal or GI tract.
when 2 organs are next to each other, double folds of peritoneum (omentum) pass between them to support and transmit vessels and nerves to and from the organs. Omentum consists of 2 sections: lesser omentum and greater omentum.
oropharynx
[L] throat; extends from the soft palate within the mouth to the level of the hyoid bone.
pallor
[T] a symptom of GI illness; [L] skin
paleness or the absence of skin color
pancreas
[L] abdomen; involved in the both the digestive system and the endocrine system.
creates juices and secretes them into the duodenum for the breakdown of foods; secretes directly into the a. canal via ducts; therefore, important to digestion.
pancreatitis
[L] pancreas;
[S] inflammation;
papillae
[L] tongue
small elevations on the tongue that are important in the process of digestion
paraesophageal hiatus hernia
[T] form of a hiatal hernia
parasites
[L] intestine, usually via food consumed or person-to-person contact; [T] many kinds;
[F] a plant or animal which lives upon or within another living organism at whose expense it obtains an advantage;
parietal peritoneum
[L] part of the "the outside tube" or coelomic cavity of the a. canal or GI tract
the lining of the coelomic cavity; on the dorsal side of the peritoneum: it forms long, thin sheets of tissue (dorsal mesentery) which support the GI tract.
pedunculated
a type of polyp that is attached by a stem-like structure or stalk.
pendant uvula
[L] throat
when the bolus is present, p. uvula seals off the nasal cavity along with soft palate. See uvula.
peptic ulcer disease
[L] duodenum & stomach;
[F] inflammation and ulceration by gastric acid juice; Peptic ulcer occurs only if the stomach secretes acid;
peristalsis
[L] muscularis layer of lumen in the GI tract
it is the process of moving food & water thru the tract via contractions; it is made possible by small, circular inner muscles and larger, longitudinal outer muscles.
peritonitis
[L] peritoneum;
[F] inflammation; [S] abdominal pain & tenderness, constipation, vomiting, moderate fever;
pharyngitis
[L] pharynx; [T] the most common etiology of a sore throat;
[F] inflammation; [S] ;
pharynx: name the components
nasopharynx, uvula, oropharynx, epiglottis
the pharynx serves as a common passageway for both the respiratory and digestive systems.
polyp
[L] bowel wall to lumen; [T] sessile or pedunculated;
[F] refers to any mass of tissue that arises from the bowel wall and protrudes into the lumen; polyps vary in size and histologic (microscopic tissue structure) characteristics.
prolapse
[L] GI tract; [T] anal (skin of the anus protrudes thru the anus) and rectal (mucosa of the rectum protrudes thru the anus);
[F] the falling down or sinking of a part;
protozoa
a single-celled animal; some are parasites.
pruritus ani
[L] anal region;
[F] pruritus means itching; [S] intense chronic itching;
pylorus
[L] the last area of the stomach, just before the duodenum, which is in the small intestine.
rectosigmoid
the rectum and the sigmoid colon considered as a unit; also applied to the junction of the sigmoid colon and rectum;
rectum
the 3rd major region of the large intestine; [L] between the sigmoid colon and anal canal.
a tube approximately 15 cm long.
regurgitation
[T] a symptom of GI illness
flow in the opposite direction as is normal. See vomiting.
retroperitoneal
[L] pancreas, kidneys, duodenum, abdominal aorta
abdominal organs that are outside the coelomic cavity; therefore, they are not covered by peritoneum.
sacculations or haustra
[L] large intestine;
a series of bulges in the wall of the large intestine.
Salmonella
intestinal bacteria
Schatzki ring
[L] lower esophagus; [T] a mucosal structure;
[F] 2-4 mm mucosal structure, probably congenital, which causes a ring-like narrowing;
sclera
[L] eye;
[F] a portion of the fibrous layer forming the outer envelope of the eyeball;
sessile
a type of polyp that is attached by a base.
Shigella boydii
intestinal bacteria
Shigella dysenteriae
intestinal bacteria
sigmoid colon
[L] the colon ends in an S-shaped bend right before the rectum.
sliding hiatal hernia
[T] form of a hiatal hernia
small intestine
[T] the longest portion of the a. canal; ~21 ft. long by 2.5 cm wide.
bolus leaves stomach and enters the small intestine; smaller in diameter than the large intestine; hence, the name, small intestine; contains villi; does not contain teniae coli, sacculations/haustra.
small intestine: name the 3 Main Regions
duodenum; jejunum; ileum
splenic flexure
[L] at the left abdominal wall the colon bends sharply
Staphylococcus aureus
intestinal bacteria
stomach
the most distended portion of the a. canal
serves primarily as storage for food before it passes into the intestines; converts food into a pasty material
stomach: name the 4 Major Parts
cardiac orifice, fundus, body, pylorus
submucosa layer of lumen
2nd layer of the lumen
function: to serve the mucosal layer; highly vascular and composed of elastic and collagen fibers.
tenesmus
[T] a symptom of GI illness; [L] anus or anal canal.
straining; especially ineffective and painful straining during a bowel movement or urination.
teniae coli
[L] runs the length of the large intestine;
3 distinct longitudinal muscles
TESTS of the Digestive Tract
upper GI series, abdominal ultrasound, barium enema; sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy, esophagogastroduodenoscopy
transverse colon
[L] extends in a horizontal direction (transverse across the abdomen)
ulcerative colitis
a [T] of inflammatory bowel disease. [L] arises in the colonic mucosa, and usually involves the rectum. [S] often revealed by bloody diarrhea.
chronic, nonspecific, inflammatory, and ulcerative disease; etiology is also unknown;
ulcers
[L] any organ or tissue; [T] many kinds;
[F] a defect or excavation of the surface; Ex: stress ulcers, ulcerative colitis;
umbilical hernia
protrusion of part of the intestine thru the umbilicus (See Muscles tab).
uvula
[L] throat; hangs from the soft palate, just above the base of the tongue
a small, fleshy mass; See pendant uvula.
villi
[L] small intestine;
one of the vascular projections of the small intestine.
visceral peritoneum or serosa
[L] covers the adventitia, part of the a. canal or GI tract.
viscus
[L] abdomen, chest, liver, pancreas, lungs
viscera is often used to designate individual organs of digestion; however, it is a general term for any organ of the abdominal or thoracic cavity;
volvulus
[L] intestine;
[F] obstruction due to knotting or twisting of the bowel;
vomiting or emesis
[T] a symptom of GI illness
weakness
[T] a symptom of GI illness
lacking physical strength!
weight loss
[T] a symptom of GI illness
losing pounds w/out trying!
Zenker diverticulum
[L] just below the pharynx - this is the most common place that a diverticulum occurs.