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43 Cards in this Set

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community
an assemblage of species living close enough together for potential interactions
species richness
the numbers of species they contain
relative abundance
numbers of individuals within in species
species diversity
considers both components of diversity: species richness and relative abundance
individualistic hypothesis
first enunciated by H.A. Gleason, depicted the community as a change assemblage of species found in the same area simply because they happen to have similar abiotic requirements such as temperature, rainfall, and soil type
interactive hypothesis
advocated by F.E. Clements, saw the community as an assemblage of closely linked species locked into association by mandatory biotic interactions that cause the community function as an integrated unit
coevolution
interactions involving reciprocal evolutionary adaptations in two species
predation
predator eats prey
parasitism
specialized kinds of predators called parasites that live on or in their hosts
parasitoidism
insects, especially small wasps, lay eggs on living hosts
herbivory
a form of predation in which animals eat plants
cryptic coloration
passive defense tha tmakes potential prey difficult to spot against its background
aposematic coloration
a warning to predators signalling effective chemical defenses in bright colors
mimicry
a phenomenon in which the mimic bears a superficial resemblance to another species
batesian mimicry
a palatable or harmless species mimics an unpalatable or harmful model
mullerian mimicry
two or more unpalatable, aposematically colored species resemble each other
parasite
derives its nourishment from another organism
host
harmed or loses some energy by the parasite
endoparasites
organisms that live within their hosts such as tapeworms and malarial parasites
ectoparasites
organisms that feed on teh external surface of a host like mosquitoes and aphids
interspecific competition
occurs when populations of two or more species in a community rely on similar limiting resources
interference competition
competition in which actual fighting over resources occurs
exploitative competition
the comsumption or use of similar resources under competition
competitive exclusion principle
concept supporting that two species with similar needs for the same limiting resources cannot coexist in the same place
ecological niche
the sum total of the organism's use of the biotic and abiotic resources in its environment
fundamental niche
the set of resources a population is theoretically capable of using under ideal circumstances
realized niche
the resources a population actually uses
resource partitioning
patterns in which sympatric species consume slightly different foods or use other resources in slightly different ways
character displacement
the tendency for characteristics to be more divergent in sympatric populations of two species than in allopatric populations of the same two species
symbiosis
a term that encompasses a variety of interactions in which two species, a host and its symbiont, maintain a close association
symbiosis
a term that encompasses a variety of interactions in which two species, a host and its symbiont, maintain a close association
commensalism
one partner benefits without significantly affecting the other
mutualism
both partners benefit from the relationship
stability
the tendency of a community to reach and maintain an equilibrium or relatively constant condition in the face of disturbance
exotic species
introduced species outcompeting native community members and altering community structure
disturbances
events such as storms, fire, floods, droughts, overgrazing, or human activities that damage communities, remove organisms, and alter resource availability
ecological succession
a succession of other species or recolonization in community composition an dstructure after some disturbance
primary succession
the process beginning in a virtually lifeless area where soil has not yet formed
secondary succession
occurs where an existing community has been cleared by some disturbance that leaves the soil intact
recruitment
major changes in community structure in colonization of disturbed patches
dynamic equilibrium hypothesis
species diversity depends mainly on the effect of disturbance on the competitive interactions of populations
intermediate disturbance hypothesis
species diversity is greatest where disturbances are moderate in both frequency and severity
biogeography
the study of the past and present distribution of individual species and entire communities