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40 Cards in this Set

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behavior
reaction to some stimulus in both nonmotor and motor ways
ethology
research field studying to understand how a variety of animals behave in their natural habitats
fixed action patter (FAP)
a sequence of behavioral acts that is essentially unchangeable and usually carried to completion once initiated
sign stimulus
an external sensory stimulus triggering FAP
behavioral ecology
the research approach based on the expectation that animals increase their Darwinian fitness by optimal behavior
search image
a set of key characteristics that will lead it to the desired object
optimal foraging
the concept that natural selection will favor animals that choose foraging strategies that maximize the differential between benefits and costs
learning
the modification of behavior resulting from specific experiences
maturation
ongoing developmental changes in neuromuscular systems
habituation
a very simple type of learning that involves a loss of repsonsiveness to stimuli that convey little or no information
imprinting
learning that is limited to a specific time period in an animal's life and that is generally irreversible
critical period
a limited phase in an individual animal's development when learning of particular behaviors can take place
associative larning
the ability of many animals to learn to associate one stimulus with another
classical conditioning
learning to associate an arbitrary stimulus with a reward or punishment
operant conditioning
trial-and-error learning in which an animal learns to associate one of its own behaviors with a reward or punishment and then tends to repeat or avoid that behavior
play
behavior that has no apparent external goal but involves movements closely associated with goal-directed behaviors
cognition
the ability of an animal's nervous system to perceive, store, process, and use informaiton gathered by sensory receptors
cognitive ethology
the study of animal cognition that attempts to illustrate the connection between data processing by nervous systems and animal behavior
cognitive maps
internal representations or codes of teh spatial relationships among objects in their surroundings
kinesis
a simple change in activity rate in response to a stimulus
taxis
oriented movement toward or away from some stimulus
migration
regular movement over relatively long distances
social behavior
any kind of interaction between two or more animals, usually of the same species
sociobiology
applies evolutionary theory as a foundation for the stody and interpretation of social behavior
agonistic behavior
a contest involving both threatening and submissive behavior to determine which competitor will gain access to some resource, such as food or mate
ritual
the use of symbolic activity so that usually no serious harm is done to either combatant
dominance hierarchy
hierarchy in which the top-ranked is assured of access to resrouces such as food
territory
an area that an individual defends usually excluding other members of its own species
parental investment
the time and resources an individual must expend to produce offspring
lek
small area in which male bird and insect species display communally
promiscuous
mating with no strong pair-bonds or lasting relationships
monogamous
one male mating with one female
polygamous
an individual of one sex mating with several of the other
polygyny
polygamous relationships involving a single male and many females
polyandry
polygamous relationships involving a single female with several males
pheromones
chemical signals used by animals that communicate by odors
altruism
animals behave in ways tha treduce their individual fitness and increase the fitness of the recipient of the behavior
inclusive fitness
describes the total effect an individual has on proliferating its genes by producing its own offspring and by providing aid that enables other close relatives to increase the production of their offspring
coefficient of relatedness
the proportion of genes that are identical in two individuals because of common ancestors
kin selection
mechanism of increasing inclusive fitness